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WRH - Exam 3

Part 2 - Sexuality, Pregnancy, and Childbirth

QuestionAnswer
heteronormativity set of norms that stipulate that there are complementary genders (man and woman) who have "natural roles"and are heterosexual
sex refers to "biological" categorization, i.e. "male" or "female"
gender refers to the ways societies structure how to be "male" or "female"
transgender when gender identity / gender expression do not match the assigned sex
What is infertility? Explain the difference between those 34 or younger and those 35 or older. - (34 or younger) inability to conceive after 1 year of regular unprotected sex - (35 or older) inability to conceive after 6 months of regular unprotected sex
in vitro fertilization - a complex series of procedures used to treat fertility or genetic problems and assist with the conception of a child - during IVF, mature eggs are collected (retrieved) from the ovaries and fertilized by sperm in a lab - "test tube babies"
GIFT - Gamete IntraFallopian Transfer - treatment useful if there is tubal blockage - ova are collected and inserted into oviducts below the point of blockage - sperm from partner or donor are placed in the oviduct
ZIFT - Zygote IntraFallopian Transfer - treatment useful if there is tubal blockage - zygote(s) inserted below the blockage in the oviduct
oligospermia - olig = few - low sperm count - can be due to tight clothes, hot tubs, etc. (heat)
azoospermia - a = without; zoo = living being - absence of sperm - due to vasectomy for example
hysterosalpingogram (HSG) - hyster = uterus; salping = oviducts; gram = record - an X-ray test that looks at the inside of the uterus and fallopian tubes and the area around them - done for those who are having a hard time becoming pregnant (infertile)
erection reflex - a spinal reflex triggered by mechanoreceptors in the glans penis; effects: - increased vasodilation to penile arterioles - decreased vasoconstriction to penile arterioles - increasing blood flow into the penis
The corpus luteum of pregnancy secretes ___. estrogens and progestins
zygote - a diploid cell resulting from the fusion of two haploid gametes (egg + sperm) - a fertilized egg
morula a solid ball of cells resulting from division of a fertilized ovum, and from which a blastula is formed
blastocyst - the blastula stage of mammalian embryonic development, consisting of an inner cell mass, a cavity, and an outer layer (the trophoblast) - forms 1 week after fertilization
trophoblast - the outer epithelium of a mammalian blastocyst - forms the fetal part of the placenta, supporting embryonic development but not forming part of the embryo proper
process of implantation of the blastocyst - blastocyst adheres to the endometrial lining, and trophoblastic cells cords begin to penetrate - they tunnel deeper, carving out a hole for the blastocyst - at completion of implantation, the blastocyst is completely buried in the endometrium
human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) - hormone secreted by the chorion - maintains the corpus luteum until the placenta takes over in the last 2 trimesters - maintained corpus luteums secrete estrogens and progestins
placenta (both maternal and fetal contributions) - maternal contributions: human chorionic gonadotrophin, estrogen, progesterone - fetal contributions:
role of the placenta in the synthesis of estrogen - fetal placenta secretes CRH - CRH triggers fetal anterior pituitary to produce ACTH - ACTH triggers fetal adrenal cortex to produce cortisol and DHEA - DHEA is converted to estrogen by the maternal placenta
(parturition) relaxin - hormone produced by the corpus luteum of pregnancy and placenta - helps with dilation of the cervix to accommodate the passage of the fetus (from the uterus -> vagina -> outside); cervical softening
(parturition) corticotropin-releasing hormone [CRH] - secreted by the fetal portion of the placenta (and fetal hypothalamus) into both the maternal and fetal circulation - leads to the production of DHEA (precursor to estrogen) - triggers parturition
(parturition) estrogen - hormone made from DHEA by the maternal placenta - stimulate an increase in oxytocin receptors in the myometrium - promotes local prostaglandin synthesis
(parturition) oxytocin - helps trigger contractions of the uterine myometrium that are sufficiently strong to expel the fetus - positive feedback cycle (pressure of fetus against the cervix reflexively increases oxytocin secretion)
parturition labor, delivery, and birth
role of the placenta in the synthesis of progesterone the maternal placenta creates progesterone from cholesterol
major physiological changes of pregnancy to the cervix (1st trimester) - cervical effacement (it becomes softer, thinner, and shorter) - starts to dilate -glands begin to release thick mucus that forms a mucus plug
major physiological changes of pregnancy to the cardiovascular system - increases in: pulse, blood volume, cardiac output, white blood cells, clotting factors - decrease in blood pressure
major physiological changes of pregnancy to the gastrointestinal system - increases in: salivation, gum sensitivity, absorption time, absorption of iron, nausea, vomiting - decrease in motility - changes in appetite, taste, and smell
major physiological changes of pregnancy to the skin - increased pigmentation - darkened areola - chloasma ("pregnancy mask") - linea nigra (vertical line on the belly) - striae (stretch marks on the belly)
barriers to prenatal care - poverty mainly - black women 3.3x more likely to die as a result of pregnancy complications than white women - almost 30% of women did not enter care in the first trimester
factors associated with late or inadequate prenatal care use - low education level - being younger than 20 or older than 35 - multiparity (those that have had kids before) - black people - hispanic people - residence in an area with few prenatal providers
lightening - a drop in the level of the uterus during the last weeks of pregnancy as the head of the fetus engages in the pelvis - releases pressure on the lungs - puts pressure on the bladder and cervix
signs of pre-labor - braxton-hicks (warm-up) contractions - lightening (uterus level drops) - release of the mucus plug - weight loss - back ache - diarrhea
two primary signals of labor - contractions - the water breaks
dilation (of the cervix) when the cervix widens/opens
effacement (of the cervix) when the cervix becomes thinner, shorter, and softer
Braxton-Hicks contractions - sporadic uterine contractions that occur during pre-labor - warm up contractions
“waters breaking” - when the amniotic sac ruptures and some of the fluid escapes the uterus - signals that the fetus is getting ready to be born
role of oxytocin in labor - causes strong contractions - part of a positive feedback cycle that progressively increases until cervical dilation and delivery are complete
role of oxytocin in milk ejection causes milk ejection by stimulating myoepithelial cells surrounding alveoli to squeeze secreted milk out through ducts
prolactin - secreted by anterior pituitary - stimulates the synthesis of enzymes essential for milk production by alveolar epithelial cells - stimulates more milk secretion from alveolar cells to replace milk ejected as the baby nurses
colostrum - product from the breasts during the first 2-3 after birth - contains antibodies
foremik - product from the breasts 10-14 days after birth - watery milk - contains lactoferrin and bifidus factor
hindmilk - product from the breasts 10-14 days after birth - creamy milk from nearly empty breasts - high in protein - contains lactoferrin and bifidus factor
lactoferrin - decreases iron availability, which is needed for pathogen multiplication (so, less bad bacteria) - in foremilk and hindmilk
Bifidus factor promotes the multiplication of nonpathogenic microorganisms (so, more good bacteria) - in foremilk and hindmilk
process of milk removal from breast the baby's gums press on the areola as the tongue directs the milk into the back of the mouth (so, milk removed through PRESSURE)
Describe and contrast the public's reaction to the release of Kinsey's report on male sexuality in 1948 and on female sexuality in 1953, as shown in the documentary "Kinsey." - MSR: a surprise to many people; quickly became a bestseller; Kinsey became well known - FSR: bestseller too, but reaction not as positive b/c of sexism (women not supposed to be sexual); statisticians finally came a calling; so did religious leaders
What were the main findings from the Peplau (2003) article? (GENDER diff.s:) - men: greater sexual desire; aggression more strongly linked to sexuality - women: more emphasis on committed relationships as a context for sexuality; sexuality more easily changed by cultural, social, and situational factors
What were the limitations of the findings reported from Peplau's (2003) article? - much of the research is based on white, middle-class Americans - little research available on MOGAI
MOGAI marginalized orientations, gender alignments, and intersex
causes of male and female infertility - MI: oligospermia; azoospermia; poor sperm motility; acc. gland/duct malfunction; varicocele - FI: tubal factors (PID, STDs, uterine infection, ab. surgery, endometriosis); ovulation problems (PCOS, anovulation, premature menopause, ovarian cancer)
varicocele - enlarged veins in the scrotum - results in temperature increase in the testes, which affects sperm production
Know the three roles of estrogen in preparing the mother’s uterus and cervix for labor and delivery. - increases gap junctions between myometrial cells and increases their oxytocin receptors, which increases uterine responsiveness to low levels of oxytocin - increases prostaglandin production, which softens the cervix and increases oxytocin receptors
High levels of ___ are required throughout pregnancy with levels steadily rising until the birth of the baby. progesterone
The cells that make up the placenta, known as ___, are able to convert cholesterol from the mother’s bloodstream into progesterone. trophoblasts
function of the essential pregnancy hormone hCG secreted by the placenta - useful early on in pregnancy, as it maintains P production from the corpus luteum - increases blood supply to uterus - alters the endometrium so that it is more likely to receive the implanting embryo
functions of the essential pregnancy hormone estrogen secreted by the placenta - maintains, controls, and stimulates production of other pregnancy hormones - needed for correct fetal development - stimulates growth/correct function of placenta - promotes growth of breast tissue (w/ P) and prepares the parent for breastfeeding
functions of the essential pregnancy hormone progesterone secreted by the placenta - needed for correct fetal development - prevents contractions until labor - strengthens the pelvic wall muscles - prevents lactation until after pregnancy
Many of the functions of progesterone require ___ and in fact, progesterone production from the placenta is stimulated by ___. estrogen
___ is made and released by the corpus luteum and then later, the foetal-placental unit, where the fetal liver/adrenal glands produce a hormone that is passed to the placenta and converted. Levels of this hormone ___ til birth. - Estrogen - increase steadily
chorion - the outermost membrane surrounding the embryo - contributes to the formation of the placenta
What is responsible for the progression of partruition? Explain. - the positive-feedback cycle - uterine contractions -> fetus pushed against cervix -> neuroendocrine reflex -> oxytocin secreted -> prostaglandin produced -> uterine contractions
identify and briefly explain the three stages of labor - 1st: contractions; cervix dilation (to 10 cm) / thinning - 2nd: pushing; delivery of baby - 3rd: delivery of placenta
In the technocratic paradigm of childbirth, as described by Robbie Davis-Floyd, what is the view of the body, the patients, the relationship between practitioner and patient, and the role of science? - basic underlying principle: SEPARATION - body = machine - patient = object - practitioner alienated from patient - science and technology super-valuated
In the humanistic paradigm of childbirth, as described by Robbie Davis-Floyd, what is the view of the body, the patients, the relationship between practitioner and patient, and the role of science? - basic underlying principle: BALANCE AND CONNECTION - body = organism - patient = relational subject - practitioner and patient connected/care for each other - science and technology balanced with humanism
In the holistic paradigm of childbirth, as described by Robbie Davis-Floyd, what is the view of the body, the patients, the relationship between practitioner and patient, and the role of science? - basic underlying principle: CONNECTION AND INTEGRATION - body = energy system - healing the whole person in - unity between practitioner and patient - science and tech. only to service the patient
Created by: jessica.gvc