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Personality Modules 51-54

Personality A person's unique and relatively stable patterns of thinking, emotions, and behavior.
Character Personal characteristics that have been judged or evaluated; a person's desirable or undesirable qualities.
Temperament The hereditary aspects of personality, including sensitivity, activity levels, prevailing mood, irritability, and adaptability.
Common Traits Characteristics shared by most members of a culture
Cardinal Traits basic; all of a person’s activities can be traced to that trait; few people have these (Mteresa – compassion)
Central Traits basic building blocks of personality
Secondary Traits superficial personal qualities (food preferences, attitudes, political opinions, musical tastes, etc.)
Surface Traits Features that make up the visible areas of personality Visible or observable traits
Source Traits Underlying characteristics of a personality Each one is reflected in many surface traits
Psychodynamic Theories Focus on the inner workings of personality, especially internal conflicts and struggles
Behavioristic and Social Learning Theories Behavioristic theories focus on external environment and on the effects of conditioning and learning Social learning theories attribute differences in personality to socialization, expectations, and mental processes
Humanistic Theories Focus on private, subjective experience and personal growth
Trait Theories Attempt to learn what traits make up personality and how they relate to actual behavior
The “Big Five” Personality Factors (Cattell) A system that identifies the five most basic dimensions of personality: Extroversion Agreeableness Conscientious Neuroticism Openness to experience
The Big Five basic differences in personality can be “boiled down” to the dimensions shown here. Is she or he extroverted or introverted? Agreeable or difficult? Conscientious or irresponsible? Emotionally stable or unstable? Smart or unintelligent?
Freud's id The primitive and instinctive component of personality. Consists of all the inherited (i.e. biological) components of personality. Impulsive and demands immediate satisfaction. Operates on the pleasure principle. illogical, irrational, fantasy oriented.
Feud's Ego Operates according to the reality principle and mediates between the unrealistic id and the external real world. Secondary process thinking, which is rational, realistic, and orientated towards problem solving.
Freud's Superego control the id's impulses, especially those which society forbids, such as sex and aggression, has the function of persuading the ego to turn to moralistic goals rather than simply realistic ones and to strive for perfection. Guilt and ideal self.
Conscious Mind consists of all the mental processes of which we are aware, and this is seen as the tip of the iceberg. For example, you may be feeling thirsty at this moment and decide to get a drink.
Preconscious Mind thoughts/feelings that a person is not currently aware, can easily be brought to consciousness. Below the level of consciousness, b4 the unconscious, mental waiting room, which thoughts remain until they succeed in attracting the eye of the conscious'
Unconscious Mind mental processes that r inaccessible 2 consciousness but influence judgements, feelings, behavior, the unconscious mind is the primary source of human behavior. Like an iceberg, the most important part of the mind is the part you cannot see.
Freud's Oral Stage 0-1 yr. Baby puts many things in mouth, as well as satisfies needs via mouth (breastfeeding, feeding). Conflict in this stage can lead to oral fixation, (smokers, nail-biters, finger-chewers, and thumb suckers)
Freud's Anal Stage 1-3 yrs. potty-training. Early/harsh PT leads to child becoming anal-retentive, hates mess, obsessively tidy, punctual, respectful of authority.The anal expulsive; liberal toilet-training, share things,'messy, disorganized, rebellious.
Phallic Stage 3-5 or 6 yrs. Oedipus complex. Desires his mom, dad is competition, dad might castrate him, castration anxiety, decides to relate to father. Electra complex. Desires her father, realizes she doesn't have a penis (penis envy), relates to mom.
Latency Stage 5 or 6 to puberty. No psychosexual development, libido is dormant. sexual energy sublimated towards school work, hobbies + friendships, energy is channeled into new skills + acquiring knowledge + play becomes largely between same gender.
Genital Stage Puberty to Adult. time of adolescent sexual experimentation, the successful resolution is settling down in a loving one-to-one relationship with another person in our 20's.
Repression keeping anxiety-producing thoughts out of the conscious mind. Ex. 3 years after being hospitalized for back surgery, the person can only recall vague details of the event.
Reaction formation replacing an unacceptable wish with its opposite. Ex. When a boy likes a girl, he teases her.
Displacement when a drive directed to one activity by the id is redirected to a more acceptable activity by the ego. Ex. Angered by a neighbors hateful comment, a mother spanks her daughter for spilling her milk.
Sublimation displacement to activities that are valued by society. Ex. A grad student works 14 hours a day on her thesis while her husband is deployed.
Projection reducing anxiety by attributing unacceptable impulses to someone else. Ex. A married woman who is attracted to a co-worker accuses him of flirting with her.
Rationalization reasoning away anxiety-producing thoughts. Ex. After being rejected by a prestigious university, a student explains he is glad because he would rather go to a smaller less prestigious school.
Regression retreating to a mode of behavior characteristic of an earlier stage of development. Ex. After her parent's bitter divorce, a child refuses to sleep alone in her room, and crawls in bed with her mother.
Undoing repenting for a wrong doing, by a secondary action. Ex. A woman gets a large tax return byb cheating, feels guilty and makes a larger donation than usual in church on Sunday.
Denial The failure to recognize or acknowledge anxiety provoking information. Ex. An alcoholic refuses to admit that he is addicted.
Humanism Approach that focuses on human experience, problems, potentials, and ideals.
Human Nature Traits, qualities, potentials, and behavior patterns most characteristic of humans.
Free Choice Ability to choose that is NOT controlled by genetics, learning, or unconscious forces.
Subjective Experience Private perceptions of reality.
Self-Actualization (Maslow) Process of fully developing personal potentials.
Peak Experiences Temporary moments of self-actualization.
Characteristics of self-actualizers Efficient perceptions of reality acceptance of self others + nature. Spontaneity Task centering Autonomy Continued freshness of appreciation Fellowship w humanity Profound relationships. Comfort w solitude. Non-hostile sense of humor. Peak experiences.
Positive Psychology Scientifically studies positive personality traits that contribute to happiness and well-being.
Traits that contribute to well-being and to life satisfaction Wisdom and knowledge Courage Humanity Justice Temperance Transcendence
Carl Roger's Self Theory Fully functioning person Lives in harmony with his/her deepest feelings and impulses The capacity for inner peace and happiness
Self (Carl Roger) Flexible and changing perception of one’s identity.
Self-image (Carl Roger) Total subjective perception of your body and personality.
Incongruence (Carl Roger) Exists when there is a discrepancy between one’s experiences and self-image.
Ideal self (Carl Roger) Idealized image of oneself (the person one would like to be).
Possible self (Carl Roger) Person we could become or are afraid of becoming.
Incongruence occurs when: theres a mismatch between any of these three entities: the ideal self (the person you would like to be), your self-image (the person you think you are), and the true self (the person you actually are).
Effects of Incongruence: Self-esteem suffers when there is a large difference between one’s ideal self and self-image. Anxiety and defensiveness are common when the self-image does not match the true self.
Conditions of Worth (Carl Roger) Internal standards of evaluation
Positive Self-Regard (Carl Roger) Thinking of oneself as a good, lovable, worthwhile person
Organismic Valuing (Carl Roger) Natural, un-distorted, full-body reaction to an experience
Unconditional Positive Regard (Carl Roger) Unshakable love and approval
Behavioral personality theories Personality is no more (or less) than a collection of relatively stable learned behavior patterns Situational determinants: External causes of actions
Rotter and Hochreich’s Social Learning Theory Combines learning principles, cognition, effects of social relationships, Psycholo Situation: how the person interprets/defines situation. Expectancy: Anticipates a response will lead to reinforcement. Reinforcement Value: value attached to a reinforcer
Dollard and Miller’s Theory Propose that personality is made of habits
Habit (D&Ms theory) Learned behavior pattern driven by drive, cue, response, and reward
Drive (D&Ms theory) Any stimulus strong enough to goad a person into action (like hunger)
Cue (D&Ms theory) Signals from the environment that guide responses
Response (D&Ms theory) Any behavior, either internal or observable; actions
Reward (D&Ms theory) Positive reinforcement
Cue (D&Ms theory) Signals from the environment that guide responses
Response (D&Ms theory) Any behavior, either internal or observable; actions
Reward (D&Ms theory) Positive reinforcement
Four critical situations may leave a lasting imprint on personality Feeding Toilet or cleanliness training Sex training Learning to express anger or aggression
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