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Evolution

Evolution a gradual change in a species over a long period of time
natural selection those organisms that are better adapted to their environment will survive to reproduce
adaptation a characteristic or trait that allows the organism to be more fit for the environment
mimicry when an organism mimics a more threatening or dangerous organism to trick their prey
speciation the formation of a new species
species organisms that can mate and produce a fertile offspring
Charles Darwin a naturalist who came up the the mechanism of evolution. (evolution by natural selection)
geographic isolation the separation of a group of organism that could cause speciation (this can be due to mountains, river, ocean,etc separating these organisms)
Survival of the fittest Those that are best fit (best adapted) to their environment will survive to reproduce
homologous structures structures that are similar in structure but have different functions (ex:bat wing, human arm, cat paw)
branching tree (cladogram, phylogenic tree) a tool scientist use to show the evolutionary relationships between organisms (to show how closely organisms are related)
fossil the remains or impression of a prehistoric organism preserved in petrified form or as a mold or cast in rock.
sedimentary rock the type of rock that most fossils are found in
absolute dating the process of determining an age of remains --gives more of a specific age than relative dating (carbon 14 dating is one way to do this)
relative dating the process of determining the relative age of a fossil or remain (i.e., the age of an object in comparison to another), without necessarily determining their absolute age
gradualism a type of evolution that is slow (gradual), constant, and consistent (the organism with the better trait will survive to reproduce--over time the population changes)
scientific theory a well tested concept that explains a wide range of observations. Supported with evidence.
overproduction when organisms within a species produces a large amount of offspring with the idea that only a few will survive to reproduce.
4 factors that affect natural selection overproduction, selection, variations, competition
punctuated equilibrium a type of evolution where changes comes in spurts.Changes are often a result of a mutation. (changes in a species are rapid over a few generation and then calm down again for awhile) Example is the peppered moths of Manchester
Why do they believe whales evolved from a land animal? Because they still have tiny vestigial hip bones.
4 pieces of evidence of evolution are: similarities in embryos(how they develop as an embryo), similarity in DNA, similarities in organisms today(body structures like homologous structures) and fossils
Explain how insects become resistant to pesticides. B/c of variations in a species, some organisms are more resistant to the chemical used in insectiides..they survive to reproduce & pass on that same gene to their offspring. Weaker ones die. Over time the species can become resistant to the insecticide.
variation differences among organisms within the same species (just like we have differences in height, hair color, eye color, speed, etc)
How is selective breeding (artificial selection) different than natural selection? Selective breeding is controlled by humans and is based on the traits that humans desire. Natural selection is controlled by nature and the traits that are better adapted for that environment
According to Darwin, how does evolution occur? by natural selection (those better fit for the environment will survive to reproduce and over a long period of time, the species can change...evolve)
When Darwin went to the Galapagos Islands, what did he notice about the finches? the finches on each island were different based on what food they had available to eat.
What is one thing that Darwin did not know about when he came up with the idea of evolution by natural selection? he did not understand genetics. (this information was not known at the time)
A frog produces hundreds of eggs. This is an example of... Overproduction
Why is genetic variation in a species a good thing? It allows for some of the organisms in that species to be better suited for the environment so the species as a whole can adapt as changes occur...rather than go extinct
Explain how the Peppered moths of Manchester shows evolution by natural selection (I had to shorten explanation...see me if you need clarification) White trees allowed for the white moths to blend in (selected for) A mutation occurred &some moths got black wings(selected against b/c not blend in) Industrial revolution occurs. Trees now black. Black wing moths. shift in population to black wing moths
Created by: mrs.thornton