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Microbiology II

Poly-B-hydroxy-alkanoate Inclusion Lipid storage of carbon (energy storage), used when cell does not need the energy, predominant mass of cell, resembles plastic
Inorganic Molecule Inclusions Use H2S as energy source by oxidizing it to S0, store sulfur as granules in periplasm, gram -, don't go into cell until needed, purple sulfur bacteria
Magnetotacitic Bacteria Orient themselves in a magnetic field, contain magnetosomes (bodies of Fe3O4)
Gas Vesicles Made of protein, permeable to gas not water, allows planktonic bacteria to maintain a higher elevation to reach sunlight, made of overlapping gas vesicle proteins, GvpC made of a helices and GvpA beta sheets
Endospores Differentiated forms of bacteria that can withstand extremes of heat, chemical, treatment, desiccation, and radiation, form during periods of poor conditions and germinate when favorable conditions arise again
Spore Coat Made of proteins, provides most of the endospores chemical resistance
Cortex Made of peptidoglycan, between the two membranes, helps with dehydration of the spore core to confer heat resistance and reduce solubility
Exosporium Not in all spores, does not provide much protection, shed after maturation
Core Wall Between cortex and spore coat, not of significance
Core of the Cell Contains tightly packed DNA
Endospore Forming Groups Clostridium and Bacillus
Calcium-dipicolinic Acid Reduces water availability in spores and intercalates DNA which protects and stabilizes it
SASPs Small acid soluble proteins, bind DNA and protect it from the desiccation, make it resistant to UV radiation and compression
Binary Fission DNA replication and cell elongation, septum formation, completion of septum with formation of distinct walls, cell separation of symmetrical cells
Autolysin Enzyme that forms the septum in dividing cells
Endospore Formation DNA becomes more dense, endospore septum grows around protoplast, forespore formation, exosporium appears, primordial cortex is formed between the two membranes, forms resistance factors, lysis of cell and release of endospore
Binary Fission vs Endospore Formation Binary fission forms two symmetrical cells while endospore formation forms two asymmetrical cells, both produce a cell with an identical complete genome
Flagella Motility Used to describe the movement of microbes through LIQUID, driven by energy derived from the proton motive force
Gliding Motility Used to describe the movement of microbes across SOLID surfaces, does not involve flagella
Taxis Directed movement of cell in response to something
Chemotaxis Movement in response to chemicals
Phototaxis Movement in response to light
Aerotaxis Gradient dissolved in oxygen
Osmotaxis Gradient in salt concentrations
Twitching Motility Movement due to pilus
Detecting Chemotaxis Capillary tube draws up liquid, test whats in the capillary tube and test how the organisms respond - measuring movement of organisms, attractant draws into tube, repellent pushes away from tube, control equal
2nd Most Abundant Element in the Cell Nitrogen (behind carbon)
Role of Iron in Cellular Metabolism Important in redox reactions, cytochromes and iron-sulfur proteins, Insoluble form: ferric Soluble form: ferrous
Sidrophores Bind to iron on the outside of the cell, hydroxomate and enterobactin (entric bacteria, free floating), aquachelin (hydrophobic tail allows it to be bound to the membrane)
Culture Media Defined: concentration known, Complex: concentrations unknown, Selective: growth of desired organisms only, Non-selective, Differential: distinguish between types of microbes
MacConkey Agar Contains bile salts and crystal violet to inhibit other bacteria, contains lactose and pH indicator to differentiate lactose fermenters
Eosin-Methylene Blue Agar Contains Eosin Y (inhibits G+) and methylene blue, as well as lactose, E. coli forms a metallic sheen due to high lactose fermentation
Free Energy The energy released from a reaction that can be used to do work
Endergonic Reaction requires energy, not favorable, DG0' is positive
Exergonic Reaction releases energy, favorable, DG0' is negative
Free Energy of Formation Energy required for the formation of a compound from its elements (products - reactants), 0 for elements
DG0 vs DG0' DG0: change in free energy under actual conditions DG0': change in free energy under standard conditions
Activation Energy Energy required to bring all molecules in a chemical reaction into the reactive state
Enzymes Catalytic proteins that speed up the rate of biochemical reactions by lowering activation energy, highly specific, do not change bioenergetics of reaction
Active Site Site on enzyme where substrate binds, affects catalysis
Prosthetic Group Non-peptide, enzyme-associated molecule that is tightly bound as part of the enzyme complex
Coenzymes Non-peptide, enzyme-associated molecule that is loosely bound to enzyme complex, may associate with several different enzymes, derived from vitamins
Reduction Potential of Half Reaction Tendency of a compound to accept or donate electrons (E0') More negative reduction potential = more likely electrons will be given up
Redox Reaction Oxidized looses electrons = electron donor Reduced gains electrons = electron acceptor Want positive reduction potential for spontaneous favorable reaction Donor must be higher on chart than acceptor
NAD+/NADH Freely diffusible electron carrier, electrons from donor can reduce NAD+ to NADH, NADH donates electrons to oxidize to NAD+ NADH is good electron donor with - E0'
Most Common Energy Rich Compound ATP - Energy released by redox reactions is conserved in compounds containing energy rich phosphte or sulfur
Short/Long Term Energy Conservation Compounds Short term: phospoenolpyruvate, 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate, Acetyl phosphate, ATP/ADP, Acetyl CoA Long term: lipids or polysaccharides like glycogen, poly-hydroxyalkanoates, elemental sulfur polymers
Substrate-level Phosphorylation Fermentative mechanism in which ATP is synthesized at discrete reaction steps, electron donor is the same as the terminal electron acceptor
Glycolysis Glucose 6C forms 2 3C pyruvate which form either ethanol or lactate, net gain of 2ATP, NADH acts as coenzyme and is reduced when pyruvate is reduced to fermentation products
Fermentation Only releases a small amount of energy bc the carbon is not completely oxidized and the difference in reduction potential between substrate and products is small
Terminal Electron Acceptor in Aerobic Respiration Oxygen
Electron Transport Carriers NADH dehydrogenase, flavoproteins, iron-sulfur proteins, cytochromes, quinone
ETC Transfer of proteins to outside and accumulation of protons of the outside charges the membrane and creates a proton motive force
Proton Motive Force Drives the ATP synthase
Inhibitors Block electron transport, preventing establishment of a proton gradient EX: carbons monoxide and cyanide
Uncouplers Allow protons to pass across the membrane (leaky) bypassing the use of ATPase - disrupts coupling of ETC and proton gradient with ATPase EX: dinitrophenol
Glycolysis vs CAC B: creates reduction potential and energy via substrate level phosphorylation and yields intermediates for biosynthesis - 2 vs 38 ATP
CAC Oxidized and Reduced NADP to NADPH, GDP to GTP, FAD to FADH, NAD to NADH
Anaerobic Respiration Use of any other terminal electron acceptor
Catabolism Generates energy by breaking down molecules
Anabolism Consumes energy through biosynthesis of sugars, polysaccharides, amino acids, nucleotides, and fatty acids
Gluconeogenesis Using intermediates from the citric acid cycle to make glucose
Purines Made from inosine
Pyrimidines Made from orotate
Fatty Acid Biosynthesis Acyl carriere protein ACP holds elongating fatty acids, carbons add 2 at a time from three carbon malonyl-ACP
Lipids Formed when fatty acids are added onto glycerol via ester linkages, phytanyl side chains in archaea, 3rd glycerol carbon bound to a polar group
Growth Refers to an increase in cell number
Doubling of a Population Generation
Fts Proteins Filamentous temperature sensitive mutants, fail to divide at high temps, FtsK helps chromosomes segregate to poles, FtsZ polymerizes to form a ring around the division plane, depolymerization enables formation of septum
Divisome Complex of proteins formed for cell division
MinC Proteins prevent cell division and formation of Z rings until the cell center has been located
MinD Same as MinC
MreB Forms polymers similar to actin filaments, cell shape Cocci have no MreB
Cell Wall Assembly
Autolysins Break glycosidic bonds at point of new synthesis
Bactoprenol Hydrophobic lipid that transports precursors of peptidoglycan across membrane, helps with assembly proteins to catalyze incorporation of new sugars
Peptidoglycan Transpeptidase Enzyme that catalyzes cross-linking of peptide side chains, target of penicillin
Pili Composed of protein, long and few in number, adhesion, twitching motility, conjugation
Fimbriae Composed of protein, short and numerous, adhesion
Capsules Composed of POLYSACCHARIDE, virulence factors, adhesion and phagocytosis avoidance
S-layers Lattice of protein, found instead of cell walls in Archaea
Oxidative Phosphorylation Respiratory mechanism in which ATP is synthesized by harnessing the proton motive force
NADH Dehydrogenase Protein bound to inside of cytoplasmic membrane, transfer 2 e and 2 p, binds NADH and reduces it to NAD+, e and p transferred to flavoproteins
Flavoproteins Flavin portion bound to protein that accepts 2 p and 2 e but only passes on 2 e, reduced but then oxidized when passes on e to next carrier
Iron-sulfur Proteins Non-heme iron proteins, only carries electrons
Cytochromes Have heme prosthetic groups, with iron center, transfers only single electron, highest reduction potential
Quinone Hydrophobic, free to move around, found in membrane, accepts 2 p and 2 e but only passes on 2 e - NOT A PROTEIN
Created by: 1138967652782105



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