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Inflammation Lecture

Increased blood supply to a damaged area, increased vascular permeability and migration of leukocytes is what event in the inflammatory response? Initiation
Activated immune cells secrete cytokines and chemokines, what event of the inflammatory response is this? Amplification
As toxins and microbes are cleared the immune response dies down, what part of the inflammatory response is this ? Termination
What are the "classical" signs of an inflammatory response? Swelling, Pain, Redness, Heat and Loss of Function
Type of inflammatory response which is self limiting and often is characterized by entry of leukocytes, removal of microbe or damage and a decrease in inflammatory cells. Cellular and Soluble mediators clear this type of response? Acute
A inflammtory response that is characterized by prolonged T cell and Macrophage presence. Blood vessel profliferation, damage and scarring are keys to this response, and often RA, Psoriasis are indicative? Chronic
Type of leukocyte which is the first to leave for the site of infection? Neutrophil
Type of lymphocyte which can secrete antibodies IGE secretion activates mast cells? B cell lymphocytes
Type of lymphocyte which is characteristic of chronic response, can kill microbes and release cytokines T cell lymphocyte
Type of cellular mediator which can engulf foreign particles, present them to T cells, Release cytokines and maintain fibroblasts and endothelial cells. Also present in chronic inflammation? Macrophage
Type of cell that cross bridges IGE to release histamine? Mast cells
Soluble mediator responsible for "loose binding" to endothelial cell and that is also responsible for guiding the movement of the leukoctyte. Includes IL-8, GRO, IP-10 Chemokine
What are the three types of chemokines? IL-8, IP-10 and GRO
Types of cells responsible for increasing endothelial adhesion, Activation of leukocytes, cytokines and fever ? Proinflammatory
What are examples of Proinflammatory Mediators? IL-1, IL-12, IFN-y and TNF-a
What kind of soluble mediator is a C-Reactive protein made in the liver by TNF-a , IL-1 and IL-6. This mediator activates c1q in the absence of specific antibodies and activates complement as well as binds to the LPS as opsonin? Acute Phase Proteins
What are characteristics of acute Phase Proteins? Made in Liver, activates complement by c1q and coats LPS as opsonin.
What is a vasoactive amine? Histamine and produced from mast cells
Arachidonic acid metabolites are? Secreted from macrophage include prostaglandins and leukotrienes
What is the function of CXCL8? chemoattract which recruits leukocytes to the site of infection
What are 3 steps of leukocyte movement? Margination, Transmigration (Diapadesis) , Chemotaxis
In margination which step is responsible for selectin "attatchment" and provides a loose attatchment? Rolling on Endothelial Surfaces
In margination which step is responsible for transition of the integrin on leukocyte surface becoming high "affinity" Integrin Activation by Chemokine
In margination which step is responsible for Integrins binding to the endothelial receptors ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 Stable Adhesion
What are the integrins that bind to ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 LFA-1 and VLA-4
What is Diapedesis? When the integrin bound leukocyte migrates through the endothelial layer. Binding of chemokines and cytokines on leukocyte allows the the cytoskeleton to rearrange and pseudopodia to extend into the endothelia.
What is chemotaxis? is a step in leukocyte movement often assisted by the presence of a chemoattractant. Bacterial peptides often secrete one specifically called N-FMLP, which is powerful for neutrophils and macrophages. Vasodilation is witnessed due to peptides, chemokines.
What is the name of the peptide which is a powerful attractant? N-FMLP
What are 2 chemokine receptors and where are they found? CXCR and CCR, they are found on the leukocyte
What are selectins and where are they found? Surface molecules found on endothelia and leukocytes which bind carbs. Responsible for rolling lymphocytes
What are different types of selectins? E selectins bind to the endothelial cell, P selectins bind to endothelial cells and platelets, L - Selectins are found on leukocytes
What are integrins and what are the receptors where are they found? Integrins are found on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and they bind to receptors on the endothelia called VCAM-1 and ICAM-1
What are the integrins found on Macrophages and Lymphocytes respectively and to what receptor do they bind? MAC-1 and LFA-1
what would a defect in the integrins listed above cause Autoimmune disease LAD I ( Patients without it have defected leukocyte movement)
What would a disease in the Selectin Receptor cause? LAD II ) deficiency in receptor sialyl lewis factor, which activates E- Selectin and P- Selectin
What is a PAMP? What does it initiate and what is its receptor? Pathogen Associated Molecular Pattern, innate response and the PRR is the receptor
What would excessive stimulation of a PRR cause? Endotoxic shock
What are two examples of PRRs and where are they found? Toll Like Receptors and NOBs , they are found inside Neutrophils, Macrophages and mast cells
What is something that binds to the TLR/CD14 on macrophages? What does it do? LPS binds and activates the TLR/CD14 and its transcription factors AP-1 and NP-kb
Created by: oupharmshahX