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SHS Adv Biology 1

Biochemistry Review

A ________ changes the structure of a compound but does not alter its chemical properties. Functional group
Peptide bonds Link amino acids together
Primary structure of a protein is determined by: The sequence of amino acids making up its polypeptide chain.
Proteins are composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. Nitrogen.
Can be storage or structural molecules Carbohydrates
These large, nonpolar organic molecules that store more energy per gram than other organic compounds. Lipids
Hydrocarbon chains containing multiple single bonds between carbons. Saturated fatty acids
A type of lipid with 4 linked carbon ring structures, and no fatty acid chains Steroids
True or False: The three functional parts of an amino acid are: amino group (NH3), carboxyl group (COOH), R- group True
The unique structure on every amino acid R - group
Condensation reactions link monomers to form polymers link monomers to form polymers
monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides are: Carbohydrates.
Polysaccharides can store: Energy and provide structural support
Hydrolysis reactions: Breakdown polymers (polypeptides, polysaccharides, lipids)
A wax is a lipid. True
A starch is a lipid. False
Saturated fats are _________ at room temperature due to______ bonds between the carbon of their back bone. solid, single
Unsaturated fats are ________ at room temperature due to at least one ______bond in the carbon backbone. liquid, double
Cellulose is a ________ molecule in plants Structural
True or false Carbohydrates are a primary source of energy for living things. True
Glucose is an example of a: Monosaccharide.
Proteins are composed of one or more Polypeptides or long chains of amino acids.
True or False: Phospholipids are specialized lipids which makeup the cell membrane. True
True or False: Glycogen is a __________ polysaccharide found in animals. Storage
True or False: Lipids can be broken down into sub units that are all exactly identical to each other. False
Lipids are __________ in water. Insoluble
True or False: A triglyceride is composed of 3 fatty acids and a ___________ molecule Glycerol
Phospholipids contain 2 fatty acids and: A phosphate group linked to a glycerol molecule
Phospholipids are polar and organise into set positions in water, true or false? True Remember phosphate groups contain a polar oxygen atom which can form hydrogen bonds with water. The fatty acids contain carbon and hydrogen only. So, the phosphate group is hydrophilic and the fatty acid chains are hydrophobic.
True or false: All lipids contain fatty acid chains False: Remember steroids don't contain these !
Ester bonds, peptide bonds and glycosidic bonds are all formed by condensation reactions, true or false? True
Triglycerides contain 3 Ester bonds, phospholipids contain 2, true or false? True.
Peptide bonds form between the ________ and ____________ groups on neighbouring amino acids. N (Amino) and C (Carboxyl)
Glucose has 2 isomers - distinguished by the position of the hydroxyl (OH) group on the __________carbon of the sugar ring. First
Created by: cpolumbo