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Chapter 8 Vocab


Nucleotides small units, or monomers, that make up DNA
Double Helix two strands of DNA wind around each other like a twisted ladder
Base Pairing Rules thymine always pairs with adenine, cytosine always pairs with guanine
Replication the process by which DNA is copied during the cell cycle
DNA Polymerases a group of enzymes that bond the new nucleotides together
Central Dogma molecular bioliogy, which states that information flows in one direction, from DNA to RNA to proteins
RNA a chain of nucleotides, each made of a sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogen containing base.
Transcription the process of copying a sequence of DNA to produce a complementary strand of RNA
RNA Polymerases enzymes that bond nucleotides together in a chain to make a new RNA molecule
Messenger RNA (mRNA) an intermediate message that is translated to form a protein
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) forms part of ribosome a cells protein factories
Transfer RNA (tRNA) brings amino acids from the cytoplasm to a ribosome to help make the growing protein
Traslation the process that converts, or translates, an mRNA message into a polypeptide
Codon a three-nucleotide sequence that codes for an amino acid
Stop Codons they signal the end of the amino acid chain
Start Codons which signals the start of translation and the amino acid methionine
Anticodon a set of three nucleotides that is complementary to an mRNA codon
Created by: brossmhol1557