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Chapter 8 Vocab

Biology

TermDefinition
Nucleotides the small units, or monomers, that make up DNA
Double Helix when two stands of DNA wind around each other like a twisted latter
Base Pairing Rules Thymine (T) always pairs with Adenine (A), and and Cytosine (C) always pairs with Guanine (G)
Replication when DNA is copied during the cell cycle
DNA Polymerases a group of enzymes that bond new nucleotides together
Central Dogma theory that states that, in cells, information only flows from DNA to RNA to protieins
RNA ribonucleic acid, it's a chain of nucleotides, each made of a sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogen-containing base
Transcription the process of copying a sequence of DNA to produce a complementary strand of RNA
RNA Polymerases enzymes that band nucleotides together in a chain to make a new RNA molecule
Messenger RNA (mRNA) an intermediate message that is translated to form a protein
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) forms part of ribosomes, a cell's protein factories
Transfer RNA (tRNA) brings amino acids from the cytoplasm to a ribosome to help make the growing protein
Translation the process that converts, or translates, an mRNA message into a polypeptide
Stop Codons codon that signals to ribosomes to stop translation
Start Codons codon that signals to ribosomes to begin translation; codes for the first amino acid in a protein
Anticodon set of three nucleotides in a tRNA molecule that binds to a complementary mRNA codon during translation
Created by: switzgra2602