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Nat5 Multicellular

Animal transport: digestion, heart, lungs

By what process does the food move through the digestive system? by process of peristalsis.
What happens in peristalsis? muscles behind the food contract, muscles in front of the food relax.
Describe the path of food in the human digestive system. mouth, oesophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum.
Where are villi found in the digestive system? In the small intestine.
What is the function of villi? To absorb products of digestion of proteins, carbohydrates and fats.
What are the proteins broken down into? amino acids.
What are fats broken down into? fatty acids and glycerol.
What are carbohydrates broken down into? simple sugars such as glucose.
How are villi adapted to their job? Large surface area, thin wall, good blood supply
What is absorbed by the lacteal? products of fat digestion (fatty acids and glycerol)
What is absorbed by the capillary? products of protein and carbohydrate digestion (amino acids and simple sugars).
By what process are nutrients absorbed by the villi? by diffusion from area of high concentration to area of low concentration of nutrients, down a concentration gradient.
What four substances are transported in the blood stream? Oxygen, glucose, carbon dioxide, amino acids.
What substances do cells take in? Oxygen and glucose for respiration, amino acids for raw materials and repair.
What substance do cells give out? carbon dioxide (waste product of respiration).
What are the three types of blood vessel? arteries, veins and capillaries.
What is the function of arteries? To carry oxygenated blood away from the heart.
What is the function of veins? To carry deoxygenated blood into the heart.
What is the function of capillaries? They are the site of gas exchange with the tissues. (oxygen in, carbon dioxide out).
What are the features of an artery? thick muscular wall, no valves, high blood pressure.
What are the features of a vein? thin inelastic wall, VALVES!, low blood pressure.
What are the features of a capillary? very thin wall (1 cell thick), large surface area
what are the four chambers of human heart? right atrium, right ventricle, left atrium, left ventricle
where does the blood in the left side of the heart come from? it comes from the lungs
is the blood in the left side of the heart oxygenated or deoxygenated? oxygenated
how does blood enter the left side of the heart through a pulmonary vein
why is the muscle wall of the left ventricle thicker than that of the right one? because left ventricle needs to pump blood throughout the body
what is the function of the right ventricle? to pump deoxygenated blood to the lungs to be oxygenated
which are the two blood receiving chambers of the heart? right and left atria
which are the two blood pumping chambers of the heart? right and left ventricles
what is the artery that connects right ventricle and the lungs? pulmonary artery
what is the artery that carries blood from the left ventricle to the body aorta
what is the vein that connects the lungs and right atrium? vena cava
what is the vein that connects the left atrium and the lungs? pulmonary vein
what is the role of the coronary artery? it is a blood vessel that brings oxygenated blood to the heart muscle
what are structures in the respiratory system that have rings of cartilage? trachea and bronchi
what is the role of the rings of cartilage in the trachea? to keep the airways open
what is the role of mucus in the respiratory system? to trap dirt and microorganisms
what is the role of cillia? to move trapped dirt and microorganisms out of the lungs
why do alveoli have large surface area, thin walls and good blood supply? to maximize gas exchange
which gas leaves the blood and enters alveoli? carbon dioxide
which gas enters the blood from the alveoli? oxygen
where does carbon dioxide in the blood come from it is a by waste product of cell respiration
why does our body need oxygen? for aerobic respiration
by what process does oxygen enter the blood in the capillaries from the alveoli? by diffusion
by what process does carbon dioxide leave the blood in the capillaries and enter the alveoli? by diffusion
what is diffusion? movement of molecules from area of high to area of low concentration down a concentration gradient.
Created by: dr.prorocic



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