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Cellular respiration


Cellular respiration formula 6 (O2) + C6H12O6 → 6 (CO2) + 6 (H2O) + Energy
3 processes of cellular respiration Glycolysis, Krebs cycle, Electron transport chain
Where does glycolysis occur? In Cytosol of cell
where does Krebs occur? In mitochondrial matrix
where does ETC occur? inner membrane of mitochondrion
During cellular respiration hydrogen is transferred from to what? glucose to oxygen
During the transfer of glucose to oxygen, what is formed? water
redox reactions Rxns that transfer electrons from one substance to another
reduction the gaining of electrons during redox reaction
why does gaining electrons cause something to be reduced? adding electrons is called reduction because negatively charged electrons added to an atom reduce the charge of that atom.
LEO the lion says GER loss of electrons is oxidation, gain of electrons is reduction
In cellular respiration what becomes oxidized? reduced? glucose is oxidized, oxygen is reduced
Glycolysis products 2 molecules of pyruvic acid 2 molecules of ATP 2 moleules of NADH (4-2)
1 step of glycolysis 1 molecule of glucose is broken in half , the two halves convert into pyruvic acid.
Where does the pyruvic acid go? to the krebs cycle
How many ATP are used and made? 2 used, 4 made= net gain of 2
What happens to the high energy electrons in glucose? they are transferred to NAD+ and convert into NADH and then drops its electrons off at the ETC
How fast are ATP's produced? 1000's inn a few milliseconds
Does gylcolysis need O2? no, but Krebs and ETC do. This means NADH cant pass electrons to the krebs and ETC.
when does glycolysis stop? when NAD+ are full
If ATP is still needed, how is NAD+ regenerated? Fermentation converts NADH to NAD+ by passing high energy electrons back pyruvic acid.
does fermentation need O2? no
Types of fermentation lactic acid and alcoholic
Lactic acid Pyruvic acid + NADH → lactic acid + NAD+
Alcoholic Pyruvic acid + NADH → alcohol + CO2 + NAD+
Yeast creates alcoholic beverages and bread, CO2 is the air bubbles
Does the krebs cycle or ETC need O2? yes, they are aerobic
Who is Hans Krebs? a british scientist that proved the krebs cycle in 1937
What is another name for the Krebs cycle and why? Citric acid cycle because citric acid is the first compound formed in the cycle
first step pyruvic acid is broken down into CO2 in a series of energy exrtracting reaction
What happens to the pyruvic acid once it enters the mitochondrion? It is converted to acetic acid and in the process a carbon atom is given off as a molecule of CO2
What does acetic acid need to do before entering the krebs cycle? it must join with the coenzyme called Acetyl CoA. It is an enzyme derived from the b vitamin pantothenic acid
What is CoA's job? to escort Acetic acid into the krebs cycle.
Once Acetyl CoA (2-carbons) enters the cycle what does it do? it immediatly combines with a 4- carbon acceptor molecule called oxaloacetic acid, to become citric acid (6-carbons).
What is released when Acetyl CoA enters the cycle? Coenzyme A is released and goes to pick up another Acetic Acid.
As citric acid moves thru the krebs cycle...? 2 CO2 are given off (mouth), ADP turns into ATP, NAD+ turns into NADH, and FAD turns into FADH2
FADH2 (nadh + fadh2) = high energy electrons are passed to electron carriers, if O2 is present, these elctrons will be taken to the ETC to convert ADP to ATP
where does ETC get the high energy electrons from? from NADH and FADH2 in glycolysis and krebs cycle
what is the ETC? a series of carrier proteins located in the inner membrane of the mitochondrion. electrons are passed from one chain to the next, and at the end an 02 serves as a final acceptor
What does the combination of O2, electrons, and H+ in an enzyme create? water
Is ETC aerbic or anerobic aerobic, needs O2
what happens as the electrons move through the ETC? hydrogen ions are moved across the inner mitochondrial membrane into the intermembrane space.
what does the increase in hydrogen ions create? a concentration gradient
the hydrogen ions ddiffuse back across the membrane into the matrix thru what protein channel? ATP synthase
what happens as H+ moves thru the channel? phosphate are attached to ADP creating ATP
Totals (one glucose) glycolysis=2 ATP + krebs cycle=2 ATP + ETC=34 ATP = 38ATP
efficiency 38% energy in one glucose and the other 62% is released as heat
Created by: lorenadorantess