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J.Sills DNA/Meiosis

J.Sills DNA and Meiosis Vocab

mitosis (reproduction relationship) process used as a form of asexual reproduction
mitosis type of cell division that creates identical cells; for growth, repair, and development; body/somatic cells
meiosis special cell division process used to create gametes or sex cells
interphase phase of the cell cycle where DNA and chromosomes replicate
sister chromatids duplicated chromosomes
centromere "glue" that attaches sister chromatids together
centriole organelle in animal cells used for cell division
spindle fibers used in cell division to split sister chromatids
cancer malignant growth of cells caused by uncontrolled cell division
prophase I homologous chromosomes form tetrads and crossing over can occur during this phase
homologous chromosomes pairs of chromosomes; chromosomes from the male parent that match the chromosomes from the female parent
46 number of chromosomes in a human diploid cell
diploid full set of chromosomes; body cells; 2n
haploid sex cell with half the normal number of chromosomes; n; ha = half
sex cells gametes
sperm male gamete
egg female gamete
n number of chromosomes in a haploid cell
2n number of chromosomes in a diploid cell
somatic cell normal body cell
karyotype visual picture of chromosomes arranged by size and homologous pairs
23 number of chromosomes in a human gamete cell
fertilization joining of sperm and egg
zygote fertilized egg; first cell of new life
embryo earliest stage of development after zygote
pollination fertilization in plant cells
crossing over occurs during prophase I; genes break off and attach at new sites on different chromosomes
nondisjunction error caused when chromosomes do not separate correctly during division
autosomes normal chromosomes; 22 pairs in humans
sex chromosomes special pair of chromosomes that determine gender
XX female sex chromosomes
XY male sex chromosomes
DNA type of nucleic acid that contains all of an organism's genetic instructions and information
double helix shape of a DNA molecule
gene a segment of DNA that controls certain traits
chromosome made up of DNA and contains genes; found in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells
gonads organs where sex cells are produced and stored
codon one set of 3 bases that code for an amino acid; (A-U-G = 1 codon)
ovary female gonad
testes male gonad
Created by: jsills