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Exam 2 Bio 2

chapter 42

all animals must exchange ____ with their environment gases
All animal cells must be in close contact with the environment or, an animal can have a ________ circulatory system
The gases that enter and leave an animal cross the _____ readily and _____ slowly across distance membrane,diffuse
The gas ____ is given off by the animal CO2
Some animals have very ____ body forms thin
The phylum ______has only 2 cell layers thick so there is a short distance for diffusion. cnidaria
The gases in cnidaria are exchanged in the cell layers in the _______ gastrovascular cavity
The phylum ________ has a flattened body form. platyhelminthes
Platyhelminthes has an extensively branched _______ so no cells are a large distance away from each other. gastrovascular cavity
A______ is a heart which pumps fluid through vessels to body cells circulatory system
Thicker animals need to have a ______ circulatory system
What kind of circulatory system has their organs bathed in hemolymph and has it spend some of its time in the vessels open circulatory system
what kind of circulatory system has blood that spends all of its time in vessels and is separate from interstitial fluid closed circulatory system
in a closed circulatory system it costs more _____, but blood is pumped at higher pressure energy
arteries always carry blood _____ from the heart away
Amphibians and reptiles have ____chambered hearts which includes 2 atria and 1 ventricle three
A three chambered heart system leads to some mixing of ______ and _______ blood oxygenated,deoxygenated
in a 4 chambered heart de-oxygenated blood from body collects in the ____ side of the heart and is pumped to the _____ right, lungs
in a 4 chambered heart oxygenated blood from lungs collects in ____side of heart and is pumped into the _____ left, body
The heart rate is the _____ number of beats per minute
The stroke volume is the ______ amount of blood pumped per beat
Cardiac output depends on ____ and _____ heart rate and stroke volume
The average resting output for a human heart is _____ per minute! five liters
Cardiac muscle cells contract (“beat”) all by themselves through ______ cells in the sinoatrial node (sa node) pace maker
Pace maker cells contract the cardiac muscles by coordinating the cells in the sinoatrail node to generate ______signals electrical
what are the electrical signals that the pacemaker cells create measured by? EKG
What hormone message is sent to the SA node to increase the heart rate ,also known as adrenaline, normally triggered when in danger epinephrine
What is space in blood vessels? lumen
The lumen in blood vessels are surrounded by euthelium what is it? a single layer of epithelium
Blood vessels are similiar to each other because they have _____ that is surrounded by euthelium lumen
The wider a vessel, the ____ blood flows slower
Blood pressure is caused when _____ push blood into smaller _____ ventricles, arteries
systolic pressure occurs right as ventricles ____, which stretches arteries contract
______ pressure is the low point when arteries snap back into “normal” size diastolic
Vasoconstriction narrows blood vessels which _____ pressure increasing
vasodilation _____ blood vessels which decreases pressure expands
______ is made up of Mostly H2O, salts (“electrolytes”), and proteins plasma
What are the 3 types of blood cells red,white,and platlets
What kind of blood cell is euthrocytes and what does it carry? red, oxygen
Leukocytes are what type of blood cell and what is their function? white,defense
What is the function of platelets? gather around damaged blood vessels aka clotting
kidneys release ________ (EPO) if tissues are not receiving enough O2 erythropoietin
stem cells in ____ produce the 3 types of blood cells bone marrow
Partial pressure is total pressure exerted by a _____ x % of a ______ in that mixture gas mixture, particular gas
Gases always diffuse from high partial pressures to ___ ones low
Gills are always thin and highly branched structures that _____ (increase/decrease) surface area and must be _____ increase,ventilated
In mammals, lungs are located in the ____ cavity thoracic
in amphibians ____ pressure breathing ventilates the lungs positive
mammal engage in _____ pressure breathing negative
in mammals the diaphragm contract which _____ air pressure in the lungs so air is sucked in lowers
hemoglobin in a respiratory pigment that contains one ____ atom and four subunits iron
Hemoglobin can accept and distribute _____ oxygen
drop in pH decreases hemoglobin’s affinity for O2 this is called ______ Bohr shift
the production of ____ promotes the release of O2 from hemoglobin CO2
Created by: 3153700