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Autonomic N System

Autonomic Nervous System

ANS function Provides the ability to maintain homeostasis Functions at subconscious level, involved in regulating, adjusting, and coordinating vital visceral function-BP, temp, respirations, digestion, metabolism, elimination Strongly affected by emotional state
ANS components Sympathetic: fight or flight Parasympathetic: rest and digest
Ganglia Group of neurons that work together and are geographically close together
Functions of Parasympathetic Nervous System slowing heart rate, increase gastric secretion, emptying bladder and bowel, focus of eye for near vision, constriction of pupil, contraction of bronchial smooth muscle
Functions of Sympathetic Nervous System Regulation of cardiovascular system, regulation of body temp, implementing fight or flight response
Preganglionic neurons and Postganglionic neurons in both PNS and SNS Pre: neurons that go from the spinal cord to the ganglia Post: Neurons that go from the ganglia to the effector organs
Adrenal medulla's function in SNS Functional equivalent of a postganglionic neuron. Releases Epi which then produces effects much like those that occur in response to the stimulation of postganglionic sympathetic nerves.
Somatic Motor System pathway One neuron from spinal cord to muscles innervated by somatic motor nerves. They only have the neuromuscular junction (between somatic nerve and muscle).
Adrenergic receptor function Mediate responses to epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine transmitters
Alpha 1 & beta 1 receptors Produce excitation
Alpha 2 & beta 2 receptors Produce inhibition
Eye response for muscarinic (parasympathetic) Constriction for near vision
Heart response for muscarinic (parasympathetic) Decrease rate
Lung response for muscarinic (parasympathetic) Constriction of bronchi
Bladder response for muscarinic (parasympathetic) Relaxation
GI tract response for muscarinic (parasympathetic) Increase tone, peristalsis
Glands response in parasympathetic vasodilation
Peripheral vessels response in parasympathetic Dilate
Adrenergic receptor subtypes Alpha 1, Alpha 2, Beta 1, Beta 2
Nicotinic receptors Occur on all dendrites and cell bodies of ANS postganglionic neurons, in the adrenal medulla, and at neuromuscular junctions (skeletal muscle) (excitatory)
Cholinergic neurons release what release acetylcholine from preganglionic neurons & from parasympathetic postganglionic neurons
What are the two classes of receptors AcH binds to in cholinergic receptors Nicotinic receptors and muscarinic receptors
Alpha 1 activation: uses and side effects Uses: Hemostasis (local bleed), nasal decongestion, adjunct to local anesthesia (vasoconst will keep anesthesia because it can’t diffuse away quickly), decreased BP, mydriasis (pupil dilation)SE: HTN, necrosis, bradycardia (baroreceptor reflex)
Alpha 2 activation central activation only, decreases symp outflow to heart and vessels Decrease symp outflow: decrease SNS even though you’re stimulating A2
Beta 1 activation: Uses and side effects Uses: Cardiac arrest, heart failure, shock, AV heart block. You will increase heart rate, contraction, BP so it's good to use for these issues. SE: dysrhythmias, angina (if you inc work, you may not get enough blood)
Beta 2 activation: uses and side effects uses: delay preterm labor, asthma SE: Hyperglycemia: mobilized glucose stores-> inc blood glucose; tremor: albuterol for asthma
Dual innervation Most viscera receive nerve fibers from both parasyp. and symp. divisions (slowing/speeding heart rate) (produces saliva, from two different effectors)
What cranial nerves does the parasympathetic innervate 3, 7, 9 and 10
Muscarinic receptors Occur on all gland, smooth/cardiac muscle cells that receives cholinergic innervation (excitatory or inhibitory)
Created by: Marissagostanian