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Public Health Exam2

Chp 14, 15, 19, 20

Antigenic drift Slow and progressive genetic changes that take place in DNA and RNA as organisms replicate in multiple hosts
Antigenic shift Sudden change in the molecular structure of DNA and RNA in microorganisms, resulting in a new strain of the microorganism
Convergence model Model illustrating the interaction of 13 factors that contribute to the emergence of infectious diseases
Directly observed therapy Observation of clients to ensure that they ingest each dose of anti-TB medication to maximize the likelihood of completion of therapy
Ecosystem Natural unit consisting of all living things (plants, animals, bacteria, viruses) interacting with, and dependent on, one another for survival within their nonliving environment
Emerging infectious disease Newly identified clinically distinct infectious disease, or the reappearance (reemergence) of a known infectious disease after its decline, with an incidence that is increasing in a certain geographic area or among a specific population
Herd immunity Type of immunity in which a large proportion of people in a population are not susceptible to a communicable disease and the few people who are susceptible will not likely be exposed and contract the illness
Microbial adaptation Process by which organisms adjust and change to their environment
Pandemic Epidemic occurring worldwide
Carrier A person or animal that harbors an infectious organism and transmits the organism to others, although having no symptoms of the disease
Colonization The presence and multiplication of infectious organisms without invading or causing damage to tissue
Common source outbreak An outbreak characterized by exposure to a common, harmful substance
Contagious Communicable by direct or indirect contact
Endemic The constant or usual prevalence of a specific disease or infectious agent within a population or geographic area
Epidemic Significant increase in the number of new cases of a disease than past experience would have predicted for that place, time, or 251 252 population; an increase in incidence beyond that which is expected
Healthcare-associated infection Originating in a healthcare facility; formerly called nosocomial infection
Incubation period Time period between initial contact with the infectious agent and the appearance of the first signs or symptoms of the disease
Infectious disease Presence and replication of an infectious agent in the tissues of a host, with manifestation of signs and symptoms
Pathogenicity Ability of the agent to produce an infectious disease in a susceptible host
Propagated outbreak Outbreak resulting from direct or indirect transmission of an infectious agent from an infected person to a susceptible host; secondary infections can occur
Reservoir Location where an infectious agent is normally found, where it lives and reproduces under normal circumstances
Secondary infection Infections that occur within the accepted incubation period following exposure to a primary case
Surveillance A continual dynamic method for gathering data about the health of the general public for the purpose of primary prevention of illness
Transmission The transfer of an infectious agent from one person or place to another
Bioavailability The amount of a substance that is absorbed or becomes available at the site of physiological activity
Biomonitoring Process of using medical tests such as blood or urine collection to determine whether a person has been exposed to a contaminant and how much exposure he or she has received
Environmental epidemiology Field of public health science that focuses on the incidence and prevalence of disease or illness in a population from exposures in their environments
Environmental health A field of public health science that focuses on how the environment influences human health
Environmental justice The belief that no group of people should bear a disproportionate share of negative environmental health consequences (regardless of race, culture, or income)
Exposure The total amount of a contaminant that comes in direct contact with the body
Exposure estimate Factors that determine a person’s level of exposure to a contaminant
Exposure pathway Method by which people are exposed to an environmental contaminant that originates from a specific source
Exposure history Process to help determine whether an individual has been exposed to environmental contaminants
Precautionary principle If something has the potential to cause harm to humans or the environment, then precautionary measures should be taken even if there is a lack of scientific evidence for cause and effect
Healthy communities Communities that optimize the physical, social, and economic environments of the community
Risk assessment Process to determine the likelihood or probability that adverse effects such as illness or disease will occur in a group of people because of an exposure to an environmental contaminant
Toxicology The study of the adverse effects of chemical, physical, or biological agents on people, animals, and the environment
After-action report Retrospective analysis used to evaluate emergency response drills
Decontamination Process of cleaning to remove biologic, chemical, or radiologic agents
Evacuation Moving people from a dangerous place to safety
Incident command system (ICS) Common organizational structure implemented to improve emergency response
Invacuation Moving people from one area to another within the same facility
National Response Framework (NRF) Framework that guides how the nation conducts all-hazards incident response
National Incident Management System (NIMS) Structured, flexible framework that guides the response to disasters at all levels of government, the private sector, and nongovernmental organizations
Personal protective equipment (PPE) Clothing and/or equipment used to protect the body from injury and illness
Point of distribution (POD) Centralized location where the public picks up emergency supplies following a disaster
Real time The actual time in which something occurs
Scenario The sequence of possible events or circumstances
Shelter in place The protective action of taking cover in a building
Simulation The imitation of the features of an object or anticipated response
Surveillance A process to document and track changing information to prevent injury and illness
Terrorism The use of threats and/or violence to intimidate or coerce society for political purposes
Created by: Malina13