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Evolution Vocab

AP Bio

TermDefinition
Divergent Evolution accumulation of differences between two groups until they are a new species
Convergent Evolution the independent evolution of similar features in different lineages
homologous structures structures in organisms that are similar because of common ancestry, may not share similar function
vestigial structures remnants of features that served a function in the organism's ancestors
analogous structures share similar function, but not common ancestry
two ways variation comes reproduction and mutations
directional selection graph shifts in one direction
stabilizing selection middle higher fitness
disruptive selection left and right
founder effect subgroups of original population relocated
bottleneck population decrease for at least one generation
hardy-weinberg conditions large population; no migration; no mutation; random mating; no natural selection
gene pool genes in population
alele frequency how common an allele is
homologous structures similar structures; common ancestry
paleontology fossils shows change in a species over time
biogeography similar species are found in similar ecosystems around the world
morphology comparing structures (analogous and homologous)
biochemical of molecular similarities in gene sequences proteins DNA
speciation new species formed
species make fertile offspring
geographic isolation barriers prevent mating
ecological isolation different habitats same region
temporal isolation different mating times
behavioral isolation different mating rituals
mechanical isolation morphological differences
gamete isolation sperm and egg don't recognize each other
hybrid inviability embryo can't develop
hybrid sterility/infertility baby not fertile
hybrid breakdown each generation less fertility
microevolution changing of allele frequencies in a population over time
macroevolution patterns of change over geologic time; determine phylogeny
gradualism species are always slowly evolving
punctuated equilibrium periods of massive evolution followed by periods with little to no evolution
adaptive radiation the diversification of different organisms into different forms filling ecological niches
Created by: 3j0mk1