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Bio Test 2

Chapter 45 Nutrition

Nutrient any organic or inorganic substance that is taken in by an organism and is required for survival, growth, development, tissue repair or reproduction
Nutrition process of consuming and using food and nutrients
Organic nutrients are carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids and vitamins
Inorganic nutrients are water and minerals
Herbivores eat plants only
Herbivore's digestive system has microorganisms that help break down cellulose
Carnivores eat meat
Omnivores eat plants and meat
4 phases of digestion are Ingestion, digestion, absorption and egestion
Ingestion food is consumed
Digestion nutrients are broken down into smaller molecules in the digestive canal
Absorption ions, water and small molecules diffuse or or transported out of the digestive canal into the bodily fluids
Egestion undigested waste products are excreted
Function of carbohydrates supply energy-wielding glucose and the carbon required for building organic molecules
Function of proteins supply amino acids that build new proteins and provide energy
Function of nucleic acids components required for DNA, RNA and ATP synthesis
Function of vitamins coenzymes in reactions
Essential nutrients needed but not made by the body. Must be obtained from outside sources in their entire form
4 types of essential nutrients amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins and minerals
Number of essential amino acids 9.
Essential amino acids builds protein. Made by some herbivores
Essential fatty acids help with pain, blood clotting and smooth muscle contraction
Essential vitamins coenzymes for metabolic and biosynthetic reactions
2 categories of essential vitamins water soluble and fat soluble
Water soluble vitamins can't be stored. must be regularly ingested
Fat soluble vitamins stored in adipose tissue
Essential minerals inorganic ions required by animals for normal functioning. Bone, muscle, nervous tissue, cofactors etc.
Factors that affect mineral usage species, age, weight, health status, and food eaten
Opportunistic animals have a strong preference for one type of food but can adjust their diet if the need arises
Ways to obtain food suspension, bulk and fluid
Suspension feeders sieve water, filtering out the organic material and expelling the rest. Water
Bulk feeders eat food in large quantities. Humans. Most mammals
Fluid-feeders lick/suck fluid from plants or animals. Mosquitos
Intracellular digestion phagocytosis to bring food particles directly into a cell where food is put into vacuoles. Hydrolytic enzymes digest food into monomers, then used directly by the cell
Extracellular digestion protects cells from hydrolytic enzymes. Food enters digestive cavity, stored, slowly digested, and absorbed gradually over long periods of time. Humans
Gastrovascular cavity Part of simplest form of digestion. Digestion occurs in it and fluid movements also serve as a circulatory system to distribute digested nutrients throughout the body.
Alimentary canal single, elongated tube. Opening at both ends which food passes from. Smooth muscle and epithelial.
Lumen digestive enzyme
Small hydrophobic molecules... diffuse down concentration gradients across epithelium
Ions/other molecules... transported by facilitated diffusion or active transport. ATP needed
Alimentary canal aka gastrointestinal tract
Human GI consists of oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines and anus
Accessory structures of GI tongue, teeth, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder and pancreas
3 sections of alimentary canal anterior, middle and posterior
Anterior Ingestion. Oral cavity, salivary glands, pharynx and esophagus
Middle Storage. Crop/gizzard/stomach, upper part of small intestine, pancreas, liver and gallbladder
Posterior final digestion, absorption and elimination. Lower part of small intestine, large intestine and anus
Saliva produced from glands in cheeks, tongue and throat.
Functions of saliva moisten/lubricate, dissolve food particles, kill bacteria, initiate digestion of sugars
Amylase enzyme that breaks down sugar
In pharynx swallowing is voluntary
In esophagus swallowing is involuntary
peristalsis rhythmic, spontaneous waves of muscle contraction that begin near the mouth and end at the stomach
Crop storage organ found in most birds. Food is stored and softened.
Birds that eat more seed have larger crops
stomach saclike organ that evolved as a means of storing food
True stomach produces hydrochloric acid
HCl helps digest food and kill bacteria
Inactive pepsinogen is converted by HCl into active pepsin
Pepsin digests protein
Carbohydrates and lipids are NOT digested in the stomach
Chyme food in its digested form. Contains water, salts, molecular fragments of proteins, nucleic acids, polysaccharides, droplets of fat and other small molecules
Small intestine tube that leads from stomach to large intestine. Almost all digestion of food and absorption of nutrients and water
Digested nutrients are absorbed across _______ _______ and into the blood. epithelial cells
Duodenum first portion of intestine
Pancreas secretes digestive enzymes and bicarbonate
Liver site of bile production.
Bile contains bicarbonate, cholesterol, phospholipids, organic wastes and bile salts
Bicarbonate ______ stomach acid neutralizes
Bile salts break up ______ _____ and increases its accessibility to digestive enzymes dietary fat
Gallbladder releases bile. Precisely times with consumption of fats
Cecum first part of large intestine. Small pouch that extends appendix
Herbivores have a _______ cecum large
Colon second part of large intestine
Rectum third part of large intestine. Ends with anus
Large intestine stores and concentrates fecal material before defecation absorbs some of remaining salts and water not absorbed by small intestine
Matter broken down in small intestine starch, lipids and carbohydrates
Matter broken down in stomach protein and carbohydrates
Vitamins, minerals and water stay in their whole form and are not digested
Regulation of digestion is by nervous and endocrine systems
Local control of digestion is by neurons within the alimentary canal
Long distance control of digestion is by brain
Gastrin hormone that stimulates smooth muscle control in the stomach and moves chyme into small intestine. Stimulates acid production by stomach
Heartburn excess stomach acid in esophagus. Happens when sphincter doesn't close entirely or is forced open. Acid irritates nerve endings
Ulcer erosion of alimentary canal. Most occur in the stomach. Due to a bacteria
Diaarhea loose, watery stool occurring at least 3 times a day. Result from bacteria, virus, stress or reaction to food/medication
Created by: Gianna B



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