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Bio Test 2

Chapter 44. Muscular System

Locomotion movement of an animal from place to place
Skeleton structure that serves one or more functions related to support, protection, and locomotion
3 Types of skeletons hydrostatic, exoskeleton, and endoskeleton
Hydrostatic combination of muscles and water-based fluid in the body.
How Hydrostatic works Animal exerts force on the fluid that fills its body cavities, uses the resulting hydrostatic pressure to move the body
Exoskeleton surrounds and protects most of the body surface. Protection from environment and predators.
Exoskeleton is made of chitin
Exoskeleton allows for growth
Disadvantage of exoskeleton during shedding, temporarily soft making animal vulnerable.
Endoskeleton provides support and protection. Protects internal structure. Doesn't protect the body surface. Protects internal organs
2 parts of vertebrate endoskeleton axial and appendicular
Axial skeleton composed of bones that form the main longitudinal axis of an animal's body. Consists of skull, vertebrate, sternum and ribs
Appendicular skeleton limb or fin bones and bones that connect them to axial skeleton.
Joint formed where two or more bones come together
3 Types of Joints pivot, hinge, and ball-and-socket
Pivot joint moving bone rotate within a ring formed from a second bone
Hinge joint formed between 2 or more bones where the bones can only move along one axis to flex or extend
Ball-and-socket a partially spherical end lies in a socket allowing multidirectional movement and rotation
Bone living dynamic tissue with both organic and mineral components
Osteoblast and osteocytes cells that form bone
osteoclasts cells that break down bone
Collagen gives bone strength and flexibility
Mineral component of bone calcium and phosphate
3 types of muscle cardiac, smooth and skeletal
cardiac muscle found in heart. Provides force required for the heart to pump blood
smooth muscle surrounds and forms part of the lining of hollow organs and tubes
skeletal muscle found throughout the body and directly involved in locomotion
In vertebrates, skeletal muscle is electrically excitable
Action potentials results in increased concentrations of calcium ions which trigger force generation
Muscle fibers grouping of cells. Bound together in bundles by a succession of connective tissue layers
Tendons bundles of collagen fibers. Links skeletal muscle to bone
Each skeletal muscle fiber is a single cell with multiple nuclei
Skeletal muscle fiber is made of numerous cylindrical bundles called myofibrils
Each myofibril contains numerous thick and thin filaments
Thick filament myosin
Thin filament actin
Sarcomere one complete unit of a repeating pattern on a myofibril
Order of muscle structure muscle, fascicle (bundle of muscle fibers), muscle fiber, myofibril, actin and myosin
cross-bridges spaces between overlapping actin and myosin filaments
During muscle contraction cross-bridges make contact with the thin filament and exerts force on them
Calcium attaches to which molecule? Troponin
Which molecule blocks the myosin from attaching to the actin? Tropomyosin
Part of myosin that makes contact with actin myosin head
Which energy molecule breaks the bond between actin and myosin ATP
ATP breaks up into ADP and P
Excitation sequence of events by which an action potential in the plasma membrane of a muscle fiber leads to cross-bridge coupling.
Mechanism by which action potentials are initiated in a skeletal muscle involves stimulation by a motor neuron
Neuromuscular junction site where a motor neuron's axon synapses with a muscle fiber
Motor end plate region of the muscle fiber plasma membrane that lies directly under the axon terminal
Synaptic cleft extracellular space between the axon terminal and motor end plate
Different muscle fibers contain forms of myosin that differ in the maximal rates at which they can hydrolyze ATP
Even though maximal rate is different the maximal ______ is the same force
Slow fibers fibers containing myosin with low ATPase activity
Fast fibers fibers containing myosin with high ATPase activity
Oxidative fibers contain numerous mitochondria and have a high capacity for oxidative phosphorylation.
Oxidative fibers contain large amounts of myoglobin which is an oxygen-binding protein
Glycolytic fibers contain few mitochondria but possess both a high concentration of proteins involved in glycolysis and glycogen (storage form of glucose)
Glycolytic fibers contain small amounts of myoglobin which is an oxygen-binding protein
Slow-oxidative fibers have _____ ______ of myosin ATPase activity low rates
Slow-oxidative fibers are good for prolonged, regular types of movement
Fast-oxidative fibers have _____ ______ of myosin ATPase activity high rates
Fast-oxidative fibers are good for long-term activities with rapid actions
Fast- glycolytic fibers have _____ ______ of myosin ATPase activity high rates
Fast-glycolytic fibers are good for rapid intense actions
Increase in muscle size is because of an increase in the size of _____ ______ and not an increase in the number of muscle fibers each fiber
Atrophy reduction in the size of the muscle. Decline of muscular activity results in this condition
Flexors muscles that bend a limb at a joint
Extensors muscle that straighten a limb at a joint
Antagonists groups of muscles that produce oppositely directed movement at a joint
I band actin only
A band myosin only. Thick
H zone myosin only. Thin
Z line anchor
M line down the middle of the H zone
Contraction I band and H zone reduced. A band unchanged
Action potential travels down transverse tubules
Sarcoplasmic reticulum releases calcium
Osteoporosis condition in which both the mineral and organic portions of bone are reduced
Myasthenia gravis disease characterized by skeletal muscle fatigue and weakness
ACh Acetylcholine
Muscular dystrophy progressive degeneration of skeletal and cardiac muscle fibers.
Created by: Gianna B



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