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Weathering The physical breakdown and chemical alteration of Earth materials as they are exposed to the atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere
Parental Material The original rocks and minerals that are weathered. Exerts some control on how easily the material is weathered, the type and style of weathering and the material that results
Erosion The removal of weathered material away from the location of original parent material, typically in a fluid medium
Differential Weathering Rocks are not homogeneous, therefore they may weather at varying rates
Mechanical Weathering Physical forces break apart Earth materials to make smaller fragments; Product is different size and shape but same composition as parent material
Chemical Weathering Decomposition and alteration of the composition of Earth materials; Product is different composition than the parent method
Fluvial Weathering water moving downslope under gravity; intensity of weathering controlled by water volume, velocity, and composition as well as terrain slope
Eolian Weathering the atmosphere moving sediment; wind velocity and density; moisture content of sediments
Coastal (Tidal/Wave) Weathering Rhythmic action of waves/tides; wave amplitude, length and composition/density
Crystal Wedging Expansion during crystal growth exerts considerable force; Frost, Salt and Gypsum wedging
Expansion/Contraction Weathering Relieving stress at new Temperature and Pressure; Pressure releases - sheet joints, exfoliation domes; Thermal; Hydration
Biological Weathering Animals (burrowing, digging, etc.); Plants (roots); Lichens; Bacteria
Anthropogenic Weathering Construction; Mining; Recreation
Mineral Stability Minerals are in equilibrium with the environment in which they formed; Quartz is stable at Earth surface conditions; Olivine is unstable at Earth surface conditions
Solution Weathering The dissociation of elements in water to produce ions; Carbonates and Evaporites
Oxidation The addition of oxygen to a compound in an oxic environment; Iron plus Oxygen react to form Hematite
Reduction Removal of oxygen from a compound in an anoxic environment; Sulfate is reduced to sulfide; Hematite is reduced to Pyrite
Hydrolosis Decomposition involving the addition of water; Anhydrite is hydrated to form Gypsum; Feldspars are decomposed to produce clays
Sediment Solid material that has settled down from a state of suspension in a liquid; Solid fragmental material transported and deposited by wind water or ice, chemically precipitated form solution, or secreted by organisms.
Sediment shape Angular; Subangular; Subrounded; Rounded
Sedimental Transport Mechanisms of transport are effectively the same as the mechanisms that induce mechanical weathering - Fluvial, Eolian, Wave, Wind, Gravity, Biological, Anthropogenic
Soil Unconsolidated association of regolith, humus and water
Regolith Weathered bedrock
Humus Carbon derived from the decay of organic material
Residual Soils Soil that form in place by the decomposition of underlying bedrock
Transported Soils Soils that form from sediments that have been transported away from the area by their source bedrock
Climate Primary driver of soil formation
Factors that control soil development Host Rock composition, Moisture, Temperature, Fluid Content. Biology, Topography (Slope and Orientation)
Pedalfer Soil Develops in moist climates; Moderate O and A Horizon; Dispered B Horizon; Extensive C Horizon
Pedocal Soil Develops in Arid climates; Thin O and A Horizon; Moderate B and C horizon
Laterite Soil Develops in Tropical Climates; Well developed O horizon; Extensive A, B, and C horizon
Physical Deterioration of Soil Erosion; Sheet Erosion; Rill Erosion; Compaction
Erosion The loss of soil from vegetation change can cause significant degradation by both wind and water
Sheet Erosion Thin, uniform layers are removed from the entire surface
Rill Erosion Soil is removed along preferential, channelized flow paths
Rills Small-scale erosion
Gullies Large-scale erosion
Compaction Cattle and machinery
Chemical Deterioration Degradation of soils by the alteration of the composition such that they can no longer sustain desired vegetation
Preventing Erosion Crop rotation; Contour plowing; Terrace construction; No-till farming; Environmental regualtions; Location
Bauxile The accumulation of aluminum in lateritic soils as a result of the deterioration of Aluminum rich igneous rocks
Gossan Oxidation and leaching of sulfide minerals results in the concentration of iron and heavy metals
Placer Concentrated deposits that result from the settling high density particles during transport.
Created by: FaithRaquel2015