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BIO Exam 2 - Stack 3

Plant Structure, Growth, and Responses

___, ___, and ___ produce the plant body. - growth - morphogenesis - cell differentiation
___ link signal reception and response. Signal transduction pathways
Plant ___ help coordinate growth, development, and responses to stimuli. hormones
development - the specific series of changes by which cells form tissues, organs, and organisms - requires growth, morphogenesis, and cell differentiation
What factors affect development? - genetic information - external environment
A single genotype can produce different phenotypes in different environments. This is called ___. developmental plasticity
Explain the developmental plasticity of the aquatic plant Cabomba caroliniana. - underwater leaves are feathery, which protects them from damage caused by moving water - surface leaves are pads that aid in flotation - both have genetically identical cells, but the different environments turn off/on different genes
growth an irreversible increase in size
morphogenesis - morph=shape, genesis=creation - the process that gives a tissue, organ, or organism its shape - also determines the positions of cell types
cell differentiation - the process by which cells with the same genes become different from one another - change in what the cells are like from one another
The ___ refers to development of the new cell wall that bisects a plant cell during cytokinesis. plane of cell division
cytokinesis the division of the cytoplasm to form two separate daughter cells immediately after mitosis, meiosis I, or meiosis II
What is transverse division and what does it lead to in leaf growth? - the plane is crosswise - associated with leaf elongation (length)
What is longitudinal division and what does it lead to in leaf growth? - the plane is vertical - associated with leaf broadening (width)
Do mutations that affect the plane of cell division (e.g., tangled-1) affect leaf shape? no (only appear different when looked at under microscope)
Although the plane of cell division does not determine the shape of plant organs, the ___ of cell division is important in determining cell fate. symmetry
What do we mean by symmetry of cell division? - whether or not plant cells divide into two equal halves during mitosis - cytoplasm can be distributed unevenly
What is asymmetrical cell division and what does it signal? - when one daughter cell receives more cytoplasm than the other during mitosis - usually signals a key event in development (differentiation)
What do guard cells have to do with asymmetrical cell division? - an asymmetrical cell division precedes the development of epidermal guard cells (cells that border stomata) - unspecialized epidermal cell --asymmetrical cell division-->unspecialized epidermal cell+guard cell (less cytoplasm)
Asymmetrical cell division also plays a role in establishment of ___. polarity
polarity the condition of having structural or chemical differences at opposite ends of an organism
What is the first cell division of a plant zygote like? What does the establishment of polarity lead to in plants? the first division of a plant zygote is normally asymmetrical, initiating polarization of the plant body into shoot and root
What happens if the first cell division of a plant zygote is symmetrical instead (e.g., the gnom mutant)? - establishment of polarity is defective - the first cell division of the zygote is abnormal because it is symmetrical - the resulting ball-shaped plant has neither roots nor shoots - the plant dies
Growing plant cells expand mainly through ___ and ___. - water uptake - “packaging” of water in the large central vacuole of the cells
What is the usual orientation of cell growth and how is that determined? - plant cells' expansion usually oriented along the plant's main axis - (so lengthwise...cells expanding vertically)
cellulose microfibrils - the main structure of plant cell walls made of cellulose - these strands do not stretch, so plant cells expand perpendicular to the orientation of the microfibrils
During morphogenesis, cells acquire different identities in an ordered spatial arrangement. What does that mean? the position of a cell has a lot to do with what it is going to become
pattern formation - the development of specific structures in specific locations - ex. humans have 2 ears on the sides of their heads
Experimental work has shown that a plant cell’s fate is established ___ in development and largely depends on ___. - late - signaling from neighboring cells
Given that the cells of a developing organism share a common genome, what controls differentiation? cell differentiation depends on the control of gene expression (the regulation of transcription and translation, resulting in the production of specific proteins)
Although cell differentiation depends on the control of gene expression, the fate of a plant cell is determined by ___. its final position in the developing organ
___ is communicated from one cell to another. Positional information
phase changes - the morphological changes that arise from the transitions in shoot apical meristems - (unlike animals, plant developmental stages [phases] occur within a single region, the shoot apical meristem)
What does dual foliage show? - juvenile vs adult phase of apical meristem - it reflects a phase change in the development of the apical meristem of each shoot
Flower function involves a phase change from ___ growth to ___ growth. - vegetative - reproductive
This phase change involves the conversion of ___ vegetative meristems to ___ floral meristems and is associated with the switching on of floral ___. - indeterminant - determinant - meristem identity genes
meristem identity gene - a plant gene that promotes the switch from vegetative growth to flowering - controls whether meristem a branch or floral
What are the four main floral organs? - sepals - petals - stamens - carpels
How are floral organs arranged? - the floral parts form 4 whorls that can be roughly described as concentric circles when viewed from above - sepals form the first (outermost) whorl, petals the second, stamens the third, and then carpels form the first (innermost whorl)
What are organ identity genes, what do they control, and how do they control it? plant homeotic genes that use positional information to determine which emerging leaves develop into which types of floral organs
homeotic gene genes that control the placement and production of parts in the body plan of an organism
A ___ in a plant organ identity gene can cause abnormal floral development, such as petals growing in place of stamens. mutation
By studying mutants with abnormal flowers, researchers have identified three classes of floral identity genes: A, B, and C
What genes code for what floral organs? (Remember the memorization sentence!) - A gene activity codes for sepals - A+B gene activity codes for petals - B+C gene activity codes for stamens - C gene activity codes for carpels - (“It's as easy as ABC in Sepe Street, California!”)
In the ABC hypothesis, what happens if A is missing? If C is missing? - if A is missing, C takes its place (carpels grow) - if C is missing, A takes its place (sepals grow)
Animals, being mobile, respond to stimuli mainly by moving toward positive stimuli and away from negative stimuli. What about plants? - plants, being stationary, generally respond to environmental cues by adjusting their individual patterns of growth and development...or - plants receive specific signals and respond to them in ways that enhance survival and reproductive success
___ link signal reception to response. Signal transduction pathways
The de-etiolation (greening) of dark-grown potatoes are an example of: how a plant cell's reception of a signal (in this case light) is transduced into a response (greening)
In the de-etiolation of potatoes, the light signal is detected by the ___. phytochrome receptor
What initiates a de-etiolation response? - post-translational modification of preexisting proteins - transcriptional regulation
What is post-translational modification of preexisting proteins? When did it actually happen? - activation of preexisting enzymes - happens during transduction stage - second messengers are made that activates protein kinases
What is transcriptional regulation and where is it happening? - genes transcribed in the nucleus - transcription factors phosphorylated by kinases, they bind to DNA, it turns genes on
What are de-etiolation response proteins and what do you think they’re doing? - enzymes that function in photosynthesis directly - had to be turned on (stimulated by light)
Plant ___ help coordinate growth, development, and responses to stimuli. hormones
hormone - a signaling molecule that is produced in tiny amounts by one part of an organisms body and transported to another part - transported through plants and activate signal transduction pathways that greatly alter the functioning of plants
tropism - tropos=turn - any growth response that results in plant organs curving (turning) toward or away from stimuli
phototropism - the growth of a shoot toward or away from light - positive phototropism = toward light, negative = away
In 1880, ___ removed and covered parts of grass coleoptiles to determine what part senses light. (Coleoptile is the covering of the young shoot of the embryo of a grass seed.) Charles and Francis Darwin
___ separated coleoptiles with different materials to determine how the signal for phototropism is transmitted. (Coleoptile is the covering of the young shoot of the embryo of a grass seed.) Peter Boyce-Jensen
What conclusion did Charles and Francis Darwin make about coleoptiles? - only the tip of the coleoptile senses light - the phototropic bending occurred at a distance from the site of light perception (the tip)
What conclusion did Peter Boyce-Jensen make about coleoptiles? the signal for the bending is a light-activated mobile chemical
What conclusion did Frits Wents make about coleoptiles? - a coleoptile curves toward light because its dark side has a higher concentration of the growth-promoting chemical - (the chemical causes cells to elongate)
Plant growth, development, and responses to stimuli are highly coordinated and under control of multiple chemical agents known as: hormones (or plant growth regulators)
Created by: jessica.gvc



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