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Sociology 2

Social Group A number of people who have a common identity, some feeling of unity, and certain common goals and shared norms.
Primary groups social group that involves interaction among members who have an emotional investment in one another and in a situation, who know one another intimately, and who interact as total individuals rather than through specialized roles.
Secondary groups social group that is much less intimacy among its members. It usually has specific goals, is formally organized, and is impersonal
dyad Group composed of two members.
triad Group composed of three members.
formal organization Highly structured secondary group formed for the purpose of achieving specific goals
Utilitarian Organizations We voluntarily join because there is the promise of a reward (occupation).
Normative Organizations Socioeconomic status is a determinate of who joins these groups (clubs, politics).
Coercive Organizations People do not become voluntary members of coercive groups
A postindustrial society society in which technology supports a service and information based economy.
Bureaucracy an organizational model rationally designed to perform tasks efficiently.
Bureaucratic Alienation Takes place when organizations dehumanize the people they are suppose to serve Weber recognized that organizations breed alienation.
Bureaucratic Inefficiency and Ritualism Sometimes bureaucracy does not address the real problem, instead following outdated rituals that lead to “red tape.”
Bureaucratic Ritualism a focus on rules and regulations to the point of undermining an organization’s goals.
Bureaucratic Inertia The tendency of bureaucratic organizations to perpetuate themselves
Oligarchy the rule of the many by the few
nation-states A unit of political organization that has recognizable national boundaries and whose citizens possess specific legal rights and obligations
intimacy The most important quality of primary groups that is missing in secondary groups is:
anticipatory socialization Reference groups are a major source of:
Max Weber Who first developed a framework to describe bureaucracies?
primary group Emotion-based interaction over extended period
secondary group Impersonal, goal-oriented relationships for a limited time
reference groups Influences a person’s behavior and attitudes, regardless of whether they are a member
Industrial societies societies based on technology that mechanizes production.
Division of Labor determines our relationships
postindustrial societies Characterized by an economy in which large numbers of people provide or apply information or are employed in service jobs
network a web of weak social ties
six key elements of bureaucracy Specialization; Hierarchy of positions; Rules and regulations; Technical competence; Impersonality; Formal, written communications
Robert Michels who came of with the Iron Law of Oligarchy
anticipatory socialization the process by which knowledge and skills are learned for future rolls
Instrumental leadership is most appropriate when the group’s purpose is to complete a task or reach a particular goal
Expressive leadership is most appropriate when the group is dealing with emotional issues, and harmony, solidarity, and high morale are needed.
Authoritarian leaders make all major group decisions and assign tasks to members.
Democratic leaders encourage group discussion and decision making through consensus building.
Laissez-faire leaders do not provide active leadership.
Conformity The process of maintaining or changing behavior to comply with the norms established by a society, subculture, or other group.
groupthink Irving Janis developed an influential theory of group decision making that he called
groupthink involves an extreme form of group cohesiveness in which group members begin to think alike and do not question each other or consider alternative choices in making a decision
Illusion of Invulnerability, Collective Rationalization, Illusion of Morality, Excessive Stereotyping, Pressure for Conformity, Self-Censorship, Illusion of Unanimity, Mindguards eight symptoms of group think
Illusion of Invulnerability Members ignore obvious danger.
Collective Rationalization Members discredit anything contrary to group thinking.
Illusion of Morality Members believe their decisions are morally correct.
Excessive Stereotyping The group constructs negative stereotypes of outgroup members.
Pressure for Conformity Members pressure any in the group who express opposition and consider it disloyalty.
Self-Censorship Members withhold their dissenting views and counter-arguments.
Illusion of Unanimity Members perceive falsely that everyone agrees with the group's decision; silence is seen as consent.
Mindguards Some members appoint themselves to the role of protector
groupthink is the process by which members of a cohesive group arrive at a decision that many individual members privately believe is unwise
laissez-faire Leaders using the __________ style of leadership do not want to be involved in the decision making process of government that affects individual’s lives
Sex refers to the biological differences between females and males.
gender refers to the culturally and socially constructed differences between females and males.
intersexual Also known as hermaphrodites – people who are born with a combination of male and female reproductive organs
Transgender persons whose appearance, behavior, and/or gender identity does not match that individual’s assigned sex.
Transvestite a male who dresses as a woman or a female who dresses as a man, but does not alter themselves physically.
transsexual a person who believes that he or she was born with the body of the wrong sex.
Cultural variation sexual practices vary considerably from culture to culture. Some are less restrictive than others
sexual orientation An individual’s preference for emotional–sexual relationships with members of the opposite sex (heterosexuality), the same sex (homosexuality), or both (bisexuality)
civil rights Gay or lesbian couples who are unable to enter into a legally recognized marriage are often denied parental rights, employment, the ability to make end of life decisions for their loved one, insurance for medical care, and other benefits, etc.
Homophobia Extreme prejudice and sometimes discriminatory actions directed at gays, lesbians, bisexuals, and others who are perceived as not being heterosexual
Prostitution Selling of sexual services
Rape A violent act that uses sex to hurt, humiliate, or control another person
Date rape (or acquaintance rape) Forcible sexual violence against women by men they know
Structural-functional analysis, Symbolic-interaction analysis, Conflict theory sociological paradigms
Structural-functional analysis Need to regulate sexual behavior, Sex functions to perpetuate the species
Symbolic-interaction analysis The social construction of sexuality, Sexual practices vary from culture to culture
Conflict theory Highlights dimensions of inequality, Shows how sexuality reflects patterns of social inequality and helps perpetuate them
sexual orientation ________ is an individual’s preference for emotional–sexual relationships with members of the opposite sex (heterosexuality), the same sex (homosexuality), or both (bisexuality)
sex, gender ______ refers to the biological differences between females and males. ______ refers to the culturally and socially constructed differences between females and males
deviance Behavior that fails to conform to the rules or norms of the group in question
Emile Durkheim deviant behavior is “an integral part of all healthy societies.”
social control Practices that social groups develop to encourage conformity to norms, rules, and laws and to discourage deviance.
Internal social control takes place when individuals internalize norms and values and follow those norms and values in their lives.
External social control other people’s responses to a person’s behavior – that is, rewards and punishments.
Travis Hirschi's Social Control theory based on the premise that deviance occurs when informal and formal elements of social control fail to constrain persons from engaging in deviance. 
Anomie normlessness
deviant behavior The central assumption of Anomie Theory is that __________ must be understood in relation to the presence or absence of a moral code within society that provides people with a true sense of meaning, purpose, and belonging.
Robert K. Merton's strain theory theory that focuses on strain which emerges when individuals and groups desire approved social goals but find themselves unable to attain them through socially approved means
cultural transmission theory All behavior is learned: therefore deviant behavior is also learned. The theory focuses on the key variables involved in learning.
Age of the learner, Intensity of contact with the deviant teacher, Ratio of good to bad social contacts in the learner’s life. variables of the cultural transmission theory
labeling theory The focus shifts from the deviant individual to the social process by which a person comes to be labeled as deviant and the consequences of such labeling for the individual
Primary deviance refers the initial act of rule breaking
Secondary deviance occurs when a person who has been labeled a deviant accepts the identity and continues the deviant behavior.
primary deviance and secondary deviance stages of the labeling process
deviance ________ is any belief, behavior, or condition that violates significant social norms in the society or group in which it occurs
ritualism The "good worker" in a large institutional job is often an example of what type of adaptation in Strain Theory?
social control ________ refers to the systematic practices that social groups develop in order to encourage conformity to norms, rules, and laws, and to discourage deviance
families constitute about one third of all homeless and are the fastest-growing group of homeless
felony a serious crime such as rape, homicide, or aggravated assault, for which punishment typically ranges from more than a year’s imprisonment to death.
misdemeanor a minor crime typically punished by less than one year in jail.
The Uniform Crime Report (UCR) a major source of information on crimes in the U.S
Violent Crime involve force or threat of force: murder, rape, robbery, etc.
Property Crime burglary, vehicle theft, etc.
Public Order Crime illegal actions without “victims” (prostitution, illegal gambling, etc.)
Occupational Crime illegal activities by people in the course of employment or financial affairs.
Corporate Crime illegal acts committed by corporate employees on behalf of the corporation.
Organized Crime business operation that provides illegal goods and services for profit.
Political Crime illegal acts involving the usurpation of power by government officials, or illegal acts perpetrated against the government by outsiders seeking to make a political statement, undermine the government, or over-throw it.
Retribution The punishment should fit the crime.
Social protection Restrict offenders so they can’t commit further crimes.
Rehabilitation Return offenders to the community as law-abiding citizens
Deterrence Reduce criminal activity through a fear of punishment
innovation Punishment is seen as serving four functions. Which item below is NOT one of those functions?
families with children _________ are the fastest growing category of homeless persons in the United States?
social stratification A system by which a society ranks categories of people in a hierarchy
social class A category of people who share similar opportunities, similar economic and vocational positions, similar lifestyles, and similar attitudes and behaviors.
Income Earnings from work or investments
Wealth Total value of money and other assets, minus outstanding debts
Closed system boundaries between hierarchies are rigid, people’s positions are set by ascribed status.
Open system boundaries between hierarchies may be influenced by people’s achieved statuses.
Social Mobility The movement of individuals or groups from one level in a stratification system to another.
Intragenerational Mobility The social movement of individuals within their own lifetime.
Intergenerational Mobility The social movement experienced by family members from one generation to the next.
socioeconomic status (SES) A combined measure that, in order to determine class location, attempts to classify individuals, families, or households in terms of factors such as income, occupation, and education
Upper Class comprised of people who own substantial income-producing assets
Upper-Middle Class . based on university degrees, authority on the job, and high income.
middle class a minimum of a high school diploma or a community college degree.
Working Class semiskilled workers, in routine, mechanized jobs, and workers in pink collar occupations.
Working Poor live just above to just below the poverty line.
underclass people who are poor, seldom employed, and caught in long-term deprivation
life chances Access to resources such as food, clothing, shelter, education & health care
Health Amount and adequacy of needed medical care vary with income levels
Cultural values and attitudes Vary with social class position
Absolute poverty exists when people do not have the means to secure the most basic necessities of life.
Relative poverty exists when people may be able to afford basic necessities but are still unable to maintain an average standard of living.
Functionalist Solutions Strengthen social institutions (education, family) so they can help meet the needs of poor individuals
Conflict Solutions We must reduce gender, racial, and class inequality before we can eliminate poverty.
Symbolic Interactionist Solutions Reduce stigma associated with being poor by changing how we view those in poverty
Wealth is the value of a person’s or family’s economic assets, including income, personal property, and income-producing property.
Prestige is the regard with which a person or status position is regarded by others.
Power is the ability of people or groups to achieve their goals despite opposition from others.
Max Weber who came up with the idea of Wealth, Prestige, and Power
money, medical care, and property Those that are poor typically have fewer life chances, which means they also have fewer opportunities to obtain __________
wealth __________ is the total value of money and other assets, minus outstanding debts.
socioeconomic status Sociologists often use the term __________ to refer to a combined measure that attempts to classify individuals, families, or households in terms of factors such as income, occupation, and education to determine class location
age, race and ethnicity, urban and rural poverty, and gender demographics of poverty
feminization of poverty The trend of women making up an increasing proportion of the poor
For many workers, earnings have stalled. More jobs offer little income. The recent recession brought economic decline Young people are remaining at home. what are the four factors that have eroded the American Dream for the middle class
pink-collar occupations Relatively low-paying, nonmanual, semiskilled positions primarily held by women, such as day-care workers, checkout clerks, cashiers, and waitpersons
52%, 10% of all poor families, what percentage are headed by women with no spouse and what percentage are headed by men with no spouse?
1946-1964 years of the baby boomers
Created by: pace_sauce