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ES Quarter 3 Exam

What is an atom? An atom is the building block of all things; it is the smallest particle considered and element
What are the 3 subatomic particles? What is each's charge? Where are each found? Which ones are denser? 1. Proton: positive, nucleus, 1. 2. Neutron: neutral, nucleus, 1. 3. Electron: negative, electron cloud, .000000056 (or something like that).
Why is the # of protons referred to as the ID for the atom? Because the number of protons is unique to each element. No 2 different elements have the same amount of protons.
What is a group on the periodic table? - As you go down a group the number of energy levels ___ and the number of valence electrons ______. A column of elements - increases by 1 ; stays the same
What is a period on the periodic table? - As you go across a period, the number of energy levels ____ and the number of valence electrons ___. A row of elements - stays the same ; increases by 1
How is the periodic table arranged? By atomic number (number of protons). Metals on left, a zigzag of metalloids, then nonmetals on the far right.
The atomic mass tells us... the number of protons + neutrons
The atomic number tell us... number of protons
To find the # of protons ... look at #
Valence Electrons The electrons on the outermost energy level
What does a Bohr diagram show? (Be sure to be able to correctly draw this diagram) A Bohr diagrams shows all of the electrons in an atom. They are shown in different levels. There are up to 2 electrons on the first, then up to 8 on each following.
What does a Lewis diagram show? (Be sure to be able to correctly draw this diagram) A Lewis diagram shows only the valence electrons in an atom, so just the electrons on the outermost energy level.
How can you quickly and easily tell the number of valence electrons in an atom? Look at the group that they are in. If they are in the 1st group, they have 1 valence electron. 2nd = 2 v.e. etc.
What are the two types that we covered? Ionic and Covalent
What is Ionic Bonding? Occurs between a metal and a nonmetal. Metal gives nonmetal electrons.
What would the charge be of a salt atom that just bonded ionically with an oxygen? (Salt loses an electron) Na +1
What is Covalent bonding? - Single bond Two nonmetals share electrons and form a molecule.(Ex: H2O) - When 1 pair of electrons is shared.
Subscript The little number next to an Atomic Symbol indicating how many atoms of an element are in the compound.
What are ions? Atoms or groups of atoms that has an electric charge. Neutral atoms loses electron = positively charged ion Neutral atoms gains electrons = negatively charged ion
If an atom has 15 protons, 11 neutrons, and 17 electron, what is the atom's electrical charge? 2-
The charge of an ion is +2 . Which pair of protons and electrons can represent the ion? a. 2p, 4e b. 20p, 18e c. 73p 70e d. 80p, 80e B
What is an isotope? An isotope is a variant of an element based on the number of neutrons.
C-14 is an isotope of Carbon. What does the "14" indicate at the end? The 14 is the atom's mass.
What is the difference between Carbon 14 and Carbon 16? The mass of one is 14 and the other is 16.
What is radioactive decay? Radioactive decay is the process in which an unstable, radioactive parent element changes into a stable, nonradioactive daughter element.
What is a half-life? A half life is the time it takes for 1/2 of the radioactive element to decay into the daughter element.
What is carbon14's half-life? 5,730 years
What was the first life to inhibit Earth? Simple, single-celled organisms. From there, the life forms evolved into complex organisms.
What is the geologic time scale? Record of the geologic events and evolution/extinction of life forms as shown in the fossil record.
The longest division of time is called the _____, it took up 88% of Earth's history. Precambrian.
The 3 divisions of time after the Precambrian are called and what life forms occupied them (respectively): 1. Paleozoic (fish) 2. Mesozoic (dinos) 3. Cenozoic (mammals)
Periods are: Divisions of time within the eras. (Jurassic)
Give 3 reasons as to why the fossil record is important. 1. How life has changed over time - older rocks contain fossils of simpler organisms, younger rocks contain simple + complex 2. What past environments were like 3. How Earth's surface has changed
What is an ocean current? Large stream of moving water; like a river within the ocean/
How does temperature and salinity affect density? Cold water is denser than warm. Salt is denser then fresh.
What is a surface current? What causes it? A current driven by wind on the surface of the ocean.
What type of current is the Gulf Stream? Where does it originate? Surface current. Next to equator.
How does the Gulf Stream affect climate? It warms to air around it, and therefore brings warm and rainy climate to Europe and other places it passes.
Warm air holds more _____ compared to cold air. Water
What is the Coriolis effect? What causes it? The Coriolis effect is the thing that causes currents and winds to take curved patterns. Clockwise = northern hemisphere. Counterclockwise = southern hemisphere. Caused by Earth's rotation
Created by: flamingocfs