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Chapter Exam 1-13

BIO31 Human Anatomy

QuestionAnswer
Chapter 1: Introduction to Anatomy Exam1A 1. An angiogram is a specialized x-ray procedure that shows ___. blood vessels
2. Name the regions of the body visible in the figure below. arm, thorax, abdomen (trunk)
3. What plane of section is shown in the figure below? horizontal / transverse
4. Is the nasal cavity lined with mucous membrane or serous membrane? Explain your answer. mucous membrane – open to outside
5. Is the sonogram below a 2-dimensional, 3-dimensional, or a 1-dimensional image? Explain. 3-D image, shows LxWxH
6. Explain what 3-D reconstruction is. 3-D reconstruction=interpreting 2-D images into 3-D shapes
7. The neck is ___ to the chest. superior
8. The ankle is ___ to the knee. distal
9. Name the four basic tissue types. epithelium, CT, muscle, nerve
10. Describe one difference between histology and cytology. histology: LM, tissue structure cytology: EM, cell structure
11. What best describes an artery: cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism? Explain organ, contains different tissues
12. Describe cytokinesis. Chapter 2: Cell Structure cell division
13. Describe the function of nuclear pores. nuclear pores allow communication between cytoplasm and nucleus
14. Describe the function of microvilli. microvilli ↑ surface area
15. Describe the function of cilia. cilia transport mucus
16. What is the function of the structures below? (rER/ribosomes) protein synthesis
17. Name the structure at the arrow below and describe its function. mitochondrion, produces ATP
18. Name an organelle that breaks down molecules. (breaks down molecules) lysosomes, mitochondria
19. Name two examples of transport into a cell. 2 transport into cell: phagocytosis, pinocytosis, diffusion, ion pumps, facilitated diffusion
20. Name two examples of passive transport across a plasma membrane. 2 passive transport: diffusion, facilitated diffusion
21. Identify the molecules at the arrow below and describe one property of the molecules. fatty acid tails of phospholipid molecules, 1 property: nonpolar, hydrophobic
22. The figure below shows a blood smear. Give an estimate of the diameter of the white blood cell at the arrow. Explain how you made your estimate. WBC ~15-20 µm, 2-3x size of rbc
23. Which image has the largest field of view? Explain. A – lowest magnification, largest field of view
24. If one sheet of paper is 100 µm thick, how high is a stack of 500 sheets of paper, in mm? Show your work. 500x100=50,000 µm = 50 mm
Chapter 4: Tissue 25. Where are lacunae located? lacunae are located in cartilage extracellular matrix (also bone tissue)
26. Special stains are needed to see B. Reticular fibers D. Elastic fibers
27. Dense regular connective tissue D. Is found in the Achilles tendon . E. Makes up the anterior cruciate ligament
28. A microscopic view of adipose tissue A. Is full of artifacts C. Has more similarities to adrenal cortex cells than liver cells
29. Reticular fibers None
30. Connective tissue C. Forms the skeletal system D. Is located within the lumen of blood vessels
31. Which of the following applies to epithelium but not to connective tissue? B. Cells are attached to each other E.Tissue has an apical surface
32. What does “transitional” mean in transitional epithelium? transitional” means changes shape of cells
33. Which of the following has/have one layer of cells? C. Simple squamous epithelium D. Pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium E. Simple columnar epithelium F. A blood smear preparation
Chapter 5: Integumentary System 1 . How could you test a patient’s skin for signs of dehydration? pinch skin, if fold persists is sign of dehydration
2. How could a patient’s skin indicate liver problems? jaundice
3. What does cyanotic skin indicate? low oxygen level
4. What is the function of melanin in the skin? Protect DNA form UV ray damage
5. Describe one function of the stratum basales of the epidermis. 1: mitosis, contains melanocytes
6. What skin structure has the function of excretion? sweat glands
7. How can the body raise calcium levels? Chapter 6: Bone Tissue D. Osteoclasts become activated
8. Bony trabeculae are covered by None of the above
9. The structural & function unit of compact bone is called___. Harversian system / osteon
10. The inorganic component of bone is ___. calcium phosphate
11. Describe the epiphysis. ends of long bones
12. What is the function of red bone marrow? hemopoiesis
Chapter 8 & 9: Appendicular Skeleton & Joints 13. Describe the bones that form the sternal notch. clavicles and manubrium
14. The ___ bones make up the hand. metacarpals
15. Throwing a ball overhand or underhand is movement at the shoulder joint called ___. circumduction
16. Describe the movement of bones during pronation. radius rotates over ulna
17. Name the bony attachments of the inguinal ligament. ant sup iliac spine and pubic tubercle
18. Describe the position of the knee and whether it is right or left. flexed, left
19. Describe inversion at the ankle joint and name the bones involved. sole facing medially, talus + fibula + tibia
20. Name the layers at the arrow. fibrous layer, synovial membrane
Chapter 7: Axial Skeleton 21. There are ___ pairs of false ribs. 5
22. The sternum D. Participates in a synovial joint
23. The sacral curvature is A. Concave anteriorly
24. Name the bones involved in head rotation. atlas and axis
25. Identify the structure at the arrow. nucleus pulposis
26. Identify the structure at the arrow below. "fetal skull Figure" sphenoid fontanel
27. Identify the structure at the arrow below. "Woman's Facial figure" maxillary sinus
28. Identify the bone at the arrow below. "Axial Skull Figure" vomer
29. What is located in the area at the arrow below? "Axial Skull Figure" air / mucous membrane
Chapter 10: Muscle Tissue 30. A motor unit: C. Has one motor neuron D. is excited by acetylcholine
31. A muscle stretch receptor A. is called a muscle spindle
32. Calcium A. Is high in the sarcoplasm during contraction B. Is high in the sarcoplasmic reticulum during relaxation C. Attaches to troponin D. Is necessary for muscle contraction E. Is needed for secretion: All of the above
33. Excitation-contraction coupling includes C. Activation of acetylcholine receptors. E. Tropomyosin moving away form myosin binding sites on actin
34. Myosin cross bridges B. Pull actin along the myosin myofilament. D. Are connected to myosin tails
35. The A band of a sarcomere B. Contains both actin and myosin. D. Contains the H band . E. Is the same length as myosin myofilaments.
36. Myofibrils A. Are organized into sarcomeres. C. Are surrounded by T-tubles. D. Shorten during contraction.
37. Skeletal muscle tissue A. Can be stretched. B. Is elastic. E. Is excited.
Chapter 11: Axial Muscles 38. Name two abdominal muscles used during sit-ups. external oblique + rectus abdominus
39. Describe the action of the diaphragm during exhaling. relaxation
40. Describe the function of the intercostal muscles. help breathing
41. The muscle at the white arrow below "Woman's Upper neck muscle structure" A. Inserts on the left temporal bone. D. Causes head rotation to the right.
42. The pharyngeal constrictors have attachments to A. Mandible B. Thyroid cartilage C. Median raphe D. Hyoid bone E. Pterygoid plates of sphenoid bone: all of the above.
43. Name two features (origin, insertion, action) that apply to both styloglossus and hyoglossus, but not to any other muscle that we studied. 2: insert on tongue, retract tongue
44. Describe the origin of the masseter muscle. zygomatic arch
45. Describe the insertion of the temporalis muscle. coronoid process of the mandible
46. Describe the origin of the extrinsic eye muscles. common tendinous ring at optic foramen
47. Describe the action of the muscle at the white arrow below. " Male Facial Structure" close eyes
48. Name the muscle at the black arrow above. " Male Facial Structure" orbicularis oris
49. The biceps muscle is a Review Questions 49-55 C. Organs: composed of several tissues
50. What is the plane of section for the figure below? None.
51. Which is an integral protein? A. Acetylcholine receptors
52. Which process doesn’t fit in the list below? Explain your answer. C. Osmosis
53. Name the two components of extracellular matrix. 2: fibers and ground substance
54. Describe an example of an artifact. 1 artifact: dust, wrinkle, shrinkage, tear
55. Describe an example of stratified columnar epithelium. None.
Created by: clardy rodney