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Genetics

Vocabulary

TermDefinition
Gregor Mendel Known as the father of genetics.
Trait Any characteristic that can be passed from parent to offspring.
Heredity The passing of traits from parent to offspring.
Genetics The study of heredity.
Alleles The different forms of a gene.
Dominant The stronger of the two genes expressed in the hybrid. Represented by a capital letter.
Recessive The allele that shows up less often in a cross. Represented by a lowercase letter.
Homozygous Genotype The gene combination involving 2 dominant or 2 recessive alleles. Also called pure. RR or rr
Heterozygous Genotype The gene combination of one dominant and one recessive allele. Also called the hybrid. Rr
Homozygous dominant RR
Homozygous recessive tt
Genotype The gene combination for a trait.
Phenotype The physical feature resulting from a genotype.
Principle of Segregation States that during the formation of gametes, the two alleles responsible for a trait separate from each other.
Principle of Independent Assortment States that alleles of different traits are distributed to sex cells independently of one another during gamete formation.
Monohybrid cross Cross involving a single trait.
Dihybrid cross Cross involving two traits.
Punnett Square Used to help solved genetics problems. Shows probability.
Parental Generation or P1 Generation The parental generation in a breeding experiment.
F1 Generation The first-generation offspring in a breeding experiment.
F2 Generation The second-generation offspring in a breeding experiment.
Incomplete Dominance An individual displays a trait that is intermediate between the two parents.
Codominance Two alleles are expressed in heterozygous individuals.
Sex-linked Traits Traits (genes) that are located on the sex chromosomes.
Family Pedigrees Shows how a certain trait is passed down within a family.
Carrier for a trait Carries the allele for a specific phenotype but does not actually express the phenotype.
Hemophilia Recessive genetic disorder that impairs the blood's ability to clot.
Huntington's Disease Caused by a dominant allele located on an autosome, starts with mild forgetfulness and irritability, eventual loss of muscle control, uncontrollable physical spasms, severe mental illness, and eventual death.
Sickle Cell Anemia Recessive genetic disorder in which the blood cells have a sickle shape and can easily rupture and get stuck in blood vessels.
Cystic Fibrosis Recessive genetic disorder in which symptoms include clogging of the airways with thick mucus, and it also blocks the ducts of the liver and pancreas.
Created by: jphokie05