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Oceanic Environment

A deck of flashcards for Undergraduate Study of Biology.

Oceans, Rivers, Lakes, Groundwater, Ice, Atmosphere and Others (animals/plants) sequenced from most to least volume of water reservoirs. Oceans, Ice, Groundwater, Lakes, Atmosphere, Rivers and Others.
What are the most abundant 5 of the 10 major inorganic salts dissolved in 1 kg of water? Chloride ions, Sodium ions, Sulphate, Magnesium ions and Calcium ions.
What are the primary production of solar radiations? It gives a higher tropic level, increases bacterial decomposition and induces nutrient regeneration.
What does light wavelengths contribute? Heat energy and increased temperature.
What are the penetration of visible spectra? Reds and Yellows are readily absorbed near the surface of the water and Blues can reach deepest depths (in clean water).
Formula for decrease of light intensity with depth k= (ln I0 - ln ID)/D. k: the extinction coefficient(m^-1), D: the depth(m), I0: the surface radiation and ID: the radiation at a depth.
Density of water Defined as the weight of water per unit volume (g/cm^3, kg/L, kg/m^3). The density of water changes with the temperature and salinity.
When Salinity in water increases at a constant temperature, the density increases or decreases? Increases.
Complete the sentence: When Salinity gets higher, the density of seawater becomes (higher or lower), which makes (higher or lower) buoyancy for organisms. Higher;Higher.
Complete the sentence: When an organism wants to swim down, it uses more energy in (higher or lower) salinity. Higher.
Complete the sentence: When an organism wants to swim up, it uses less energy in (higher or lower) salinity. Higher.
Equation for pH levels pH= -log10 [H+], where H+ is the concentration of H+ ions (molL^-1)
Microbe They are generally organisms that are smaller than 100 micrometer.
What are the 3 Domains? Eubacteria, Archae and Eukarya.
What are the 6 kingdoms? Bacteria, Archaea, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia and Protista.
What kingdoms are Eukaryotes or Prokaryotes? Bacteria and Archaea are Prokaryotic while Fungi, Plantae, Animalia and Protista are Eukaryotic.
What are the major biogenic elements used by marine microbes? Answer in sequence from the most abundant to the least. O, C, H, N, P, S, Si.
Elemental ratios in microbes (Redfield ratio) C:N:P = 106:16:1 (C:N=6.6, C:P=106). C, N and P are important elements to determine microbial activity.
Chemosynthetic microbes They are microbes that use energy for chemical reactions.
Dinoflagellate The most abundant phytoplankton with two flagella.
Substrate uptake by microbes Microbes can absorb substrate (nutrition) from the surface of their cells. At low concentrations, the uptake rate is almost proportional to the concentration. At high concentrations, the uptake rate reaches the maximum (upper limit).
Michaelis-Menten equation for substrate uptake V= Vmax[S]/(K+[S]), where V: substrate uptake rate (micromol/L/d), Vmax[S]: the maximum substrate uptake rate, [S]: a substrate concentration (micromol/L/M) and K: the concentration of substrate at 1/2 Vmax.
Principle of the growth of microbes The growth rate of a population of microbes is proportional to the number of the microbe. dN/dt proportional to N, where N: the microbial population, dN: the change of population and dt: during a short period of time.
Exponential growth of microbes N= N0+triangleN=N0 x e^micro(t), where N: the population at the end, N0: the population at the start, triangleN: the population produced during a period of t and micro: the specific growth rate, growth constant (d^-1 or h^-1).
Doubling time in exponential growth It is the time taken for a population to increase by 100%, or when triangleN in the exponential growth equation is replaced with N0.
How does micro values effect the growth rate? N=N0xe^micro(t). It will imply that as the growth constant increases, the growth rate increases.
What photosynthetic primary producer in aquatic ecosystems has the largest habitat area? Phytoplankton.
Equation with mol, concentration and volume C=N/V, where N: mol, C: concentration and V:volume.
General units Peta= 10^15, Tera= 10^12, Giga= 10^9, Mega= 10^6, Kilo= 10^3, Milli= 10^-3, Micro= 10^-6, Nano= 10^-9, Pico= 10^-12 and Femto= 10^-15.
What are the importance of algal study? Biofuel and Bioremediation.
Biofuel A research to find the best algal species, environmental conditions and the oil extraction process.
Bioremediation Used for wastewater treatment and water purification for a system that is efficient and environmentally-friendly.
Algal metabolism Metabolism has a relationship with the light intensity and photosynthetic rate (C uptake rate). When light intensity increases, the photosynthetic rate increases. The net production is equal to the total photosynthetic rate - respiration.
Equation for algal metabolism, with exception to photoinhibition (compensating point) P= Pmax[L]/(K+L), where P: photosynthetic rate, Pmax: maximum photosynthetic rate, L: light intensity and K: half-saturation constant (half P).
Created by: theecloud