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BIO Exam 2 - Stack 2

Being a Plant

QuestionAnswer
Many of the adaptations that appear to have emerged after land plants diverged from their algal relatives facilitated ___ and ___ on dry land. - survival - reproduction
Plants have a hierarchical organization consisting of ___, ___, and ___. - organs - tissues - cells
Different ___ generate new cells for primary and secondary growth. meristems
The presence of land plants has enabled other life-forms – including animals – to survive on land. What does that mean? What do animals get from plants? - photosynthetic organisms like plants produce oxygen and food (like carb.s) - animals benefit from both products - the roots of plants also create habitats by stabilizing soil
What are the four key traits of land plants? - alternation of generations and multicellular, dependent embryos - walled spores produced in sporangia - multicellular gametangia - apical meristems
The life cycles of all land plants alternate between two generations of multicellular organisms: ___ and ___. Each generation gives rise to the other. - gametophytes - sporophytes
alternation of generations - a life cycle in which there is both a multicellular diploid form (sporophyte) and a multicellular haploid form (gametophyte) - characteristic of plants and some algae
What exactly is a sporophyte and what does it produce? - [in organisms (plants and some algae) that have alternation of generations,] the multicellular diploid form that results from the union of gametes (and development of the zygote) - produces haploid spore by meiosis
What exactly is a gametophyte and what does it produce? - [in organisms (plants and some algae) that have alternation of generations,] the multicellular haploid form that develops from a spore via mitosis - produces haploid gametes by mitosis
Where is meiosis occurring during the alternation of generations? in sporophytes during the production of spores
What process is giving rise to gametes during the alternation of generations? mitosis in the gametophyte
What process is giving rise to the zygote during the alternation of generations? union of two different haploid gametes; fertilization
Where is the embryo developing during the alternation of generations? multicellular plant embryos develop from zygotes that are retained within the tissues of the "female" parent (a gametophyte)
What is a sporangium? Where are sporangia found? - a multicellular organism in which meiosis occurs and haploid cells develop - part of the sporophytes where spores are made - (like gonads are parts of us where gametes are made)
By what process do sporangia produce spores? What does the spore wall do? - spores are produced via meiosis - the spore wall is tough and resistant to harsh environments (allows 'em to be dispersed through dry air w/o harm) - the cell membrane by itself is not enough to hold in water and protect spores outside of sporangia
archegonium - arche = origin - the "female" gametangium (multicellular plant structure) - a moist chamber in which gametes develop - like ovaries in humans
antheridium - the "male" gametangium (multicellular plant structure) - a moist chamber in which gametes develop - like testes in humans
By what process are eggs and sperm produced? Where does fertilization take place? - mitosis - sperm is released into the environment, travels to archegonium to fertilize the eggs
Where does the embryo develop? within an archegonium
In liverworts, female and male gametophytes are separated. How do sperm get to eggs? - sperm are released from antheridia - when it rains, drops hit the male gametophytes - sperm get in the water and are splashed onto female gametophytes - they can then swim to the archegonia and eggs
How does a plant get its food? Where does that happen? - photosynthesis - mostly in leaves, can be in stems too
How does a plant get its water and mineral nutrients? Where does that happen? - from the soil - in the root system
apical meristem - apex = tip - embryonic plant tissue in the TIPS of roots and buds of shoots - the dividing cells of an apical meristem enable the plant to grow in length
What is growth like in plants compared to animals? - plants (mostly...): indeterminate growth, cells enlarge, happens at apical meristems, cells differentiate - animals (mostly): determinate growth, cell number increases, happens in most tissues, cells lose ability to differentiate
How are growing tips protected? - the root apical meristem is protected from the time it emerges by the root cap; sloughed off - “stemlike” tissue bends as a seedling emerges to minimize the force on the shoot tip - sheaths of tissue can form a protective tube around emerging shoots
Plants have a hierarchical organization consisting of ___, ___, and ___. - organs - tissues - cells
tissue an integrated group of cells with a common structure, function, or both
organ a specialized center of body function composed of several different types of tissue
What are roots and what are their functions? - an organ in vascular plants - absorb water, nutrients, and oxygen - transport those to shoot system - anchor the plant - store food (starch)
taproot a main vertical root that develops from an embryonic root and gives rise to lateral (branch) roots
What are lateral (branch) roots and what do they do? - roots that arise from established roots, such as the taproot - increase surface area
What are root hairs and what do they do? - tiny extensions of root epidermal cells, growing just behind the root tips - increases surface area even more for absorption of water and minerals
What are prop roots and what do they do? - modified roots - aerial roots that arise from stems - they penetrate the soil from various directions to help support tall, top-heavy plants (especially when the soil is shallow and unstable) - ex. hala or mangroove trees
What are storage roots and what do they do? - modified roots - roots that are specially modified for storage of starch and water - they usually grow underground for protection from plant-eating animals - ex. beets, carrots
What are strangling aerial roots and what do they do? - modified roots - sent down from the tops of tall trees and become rooted in the soil - the roots surround the host trunk, eventually strangling the bark and killing the host tree
What are pneumatophores and what do they do? - modified roots - "air roots" - roots that come out of the water - enable the root system to obtain oxygen
What are buttress roots and what do they do? - modified roots - large, shallow roots common in tropical areas because most nutrients are only available at the surface level - extensive root system also provides larger surface area for absorption and architectural support for the large trees
What do plants use oxygen for? - to produce energy when there is no sunlight (they respire just like animals do) - respiration combines oxygen and the food created during photosynthesis to produce usable energy - one of the byproducts of respiration is CO2
What are stems and what are their functions? - organs in vascular plants that consist of alternating systems of nodes and internodes - support, raise and separate the leaves to expose them to sunlight - raise reproductive structures to facilitate dispersal of pollen (wind, bees) and fruit (birds)
node a point along the stem of a plant at which leaves are attached
internode a segment of a plant stem between the points where leaves are attached
axillary bud - a structure that has the potential to form a lateral shoot, or branch - the bud appears in the angle formed between a leaf and a stem
apical bud - a bud at the tip (apex) of a plant stem - also called a terminal bud - grows vertically
apical dominance - the tendency for growth to be concentrated at the tip of a plant shoot, because the apical bud partially inhibits axillary bud growth via hormones - clipping the apical bud causes a plant to grow more laterally/bushy instead of vertically
What are rhizomes and what do they do? - modified, underground stems - horizontal shoots that grow just below the surface - vertical shoots emerge from axillary buds on the rhizome - ex. ginger
What are stolons and what do they do? - modified stems - horizontal shoots that grow along the surface - these "runners" enable a plant to reproduce asexually as plantlets form at nodes along each runner - ex. strawberry plant
What are tubers and what do they do? - modified stems - enlarged ends of rhizomes or stolons specialized for storing food - ex. potatoes - the "eyes" of a potato are clusters of axillary buds that mark the nodes
What are leaves and what are their functions? - the main photosynthetic organ of vascular plants - carry out photosynthesis - protect the plant - carry out gas exchange (through stomata)
blade the flattened portion of a typical leaf
petiole - the stalk of a leaf - joins the leaf to a node of the stem - (not all plants have these)
simple leaf - has a single blade (not divided into leaflets) - can be lobed
compound leaf - blade consists of multiple leaflets - can tell its one leaf because there will only be one axillary bud at the base
What are tendrils and what do they do? - modified leaves that cling to supports - some plants have weak stems, so the need tendrils to grow vertically - after a tendril has "lassoed" a support, it will form a coil that brings the plant closer to the support
What are spines and what do they do? - modified leaves - protect the plant from predators - plants that have spines, like cacti, carry out photosynthesis in the stem
What are storage leaves and what do they do? - modified leaves that layer and attach to a short stem - store food - the most common storage product is starch - ex. onion
What are reproductive leaves and what do they do? - modified leaves - produce adventitious plantlets that fall off the leaf and take root in the soil - asexual reproduction
The basic plant organs (roots, stems, and leaves) are composed of ___, ___, and ___ tissues. - dermal - vascular - ground
dermal tissue system - the plant's outer protective covering - first line of defense against physical damage and pathogens
epidermis - the dermal tissue system of nonwoody plants, usually consisting of a single later of tightly packed cells - protects the plant - helps with water retention
cuticle a waxy covering on the surface of stems and leaves that prevents desiccation (drying out) of terrestrial plants
periderm the protective coat that replaces the epidermis in woody plants during secondary growth, formed of the cork and cork cambium
trichomes - hair-like outgrowths of the shoot epidermis - some are spiky or produce unpleasant tastes/odors to protect against predators - others reduce water loss and reflect excess light
What are the functions of the vascular tissue system? to carry out long-distance transport of materials between the root and shoot systems
xylem - vascular plant tissue consisting mainly of tubular dead cells that conduct most of the water and minerals upward from the roots to the rest of the plant - ONE WAY SYSTEM (root system -> stomata)
phloem - vascular plant tissue consisting of living cells arranged into elongated tubes that transport sugar and other organic nutrients throughout the plant - from photosynthetic to not - TWO WAY SYSTEM (SOURCE TO SINK)
What are the functions of the ground tissue system? - tissue that's not vascular or dermal - filler tissue, but also includes various cells specialized for functions such as storage, photosynthesis, and support
pith ground tissue that is internal to the vascular tissue
cortex ground tissue that is between the vascular and dermal tissue
parenchyma cells - (para=beside/near, enchym=pour in) - a relatively unspecialized plant cell type that carries out most of the metabolism, synthesizes and stores organic products, and develops into a more differentiated cell type - living cells
collenchyma cells - (coll=neck, enchym=pour in) - a flexible plant cell type that occurs in strands or cylinders that support young parts of the plant without restraining growth - living cells
sclerenchyma cells - (scler=hard, enchym=pour in) - a rigid, supportive plant cell type possessing thick secondary walls strengthened by lignin at maturity - cells die at maturity
tracheid - a long, tapered water-conducting cell found in the xylem of nearly all vascular plants - functioning tracheids are no longer living - narrower than vessels
vessel - a continuous water-conducting micropipe found in the xylem of plants - wider than tracheids
sieve tube elements - living cells that conduct sugars and other organic nutrients in the phloem - connected end to end, they form sieve tubes
companion cells - plant cells that are connected to sieve tube elements by plasmodesmata and whose nucleus and ribosomes may serve one or more adjacent sieve tube elements - regulates flow of nutrients
Different ___ generate new cells for primary and secondary growth. meristems
indeterminate growth a type of growth characteristic in plants in which the organism continues to grow as long as it lives
determinate growth a type of growth characteristic of most animals and some plant organs (flowers and leaves) in which growth stops after a certain size is reached
apical meristem - embryonic plant tissue in the tips of roots and buds of shoots - the dividing cells of an apical meristem enable the plant to grow in length
primary growth - growth produced by apical meristems, lengthening roots and stems - all plants have primary growth
secondary growth growth produced by lateral meristems, thickening the roots and shoots of woody plants
lateral meristems - a meristem that thickens the roots and shoots of woody plants - eg. vascular and cork cambium
cork cambium a cylinder of meristematic tissue in woody plants that replaces the epidermis with thicker, tougher cork cells
Epidermal cells are replaced by ___ and then ___. - periderm - cork
vascular cambium a cylinder of meristematic tissue in woody plants that adds layers of secondary vascular tissue called secondary xylem (wood) and secondary phloem
Created by: jessica.gvc