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Plant Transport

module 3

what does the vacuolar pathway have to go through cell wall, plasma membrane, tonoplast
what does the apoplast pathway have to go through and what mechanism is used for the water to flow non-living parts-cell wall and by mass flow
what does the symplast pathway have to go through cell wall and membrane
which pathway is the most common and why apoplast because less resistance
why do plants have to have a big surface area to volume ratio they rely solely on diffusion on gas transport
what is the xylem made up of xylem vessel elements
what are the adaptions of the xylem vessel elements there are no end walls- allows water to pass continuously no cytoplasm- (they are dead) no resistance partially lignified- to strengthen but have parts with no lignin called pits that water can move laterally through
why ix the xylem lignified to support the wall and stop it from collapsing
why is deposited in different ways to give flexibility and stop stem breaking
as plants get older what happens to the lignin it increases
why are pits needed so water can move laterally to other cells
how does water get from the soil into the root osmosis
what causes the osmosis to occur from the soil to the root nitrates and minerals are taken in by active transport and this decreases the water potential in the root
how does water move from cell to another through plasmodesmata (small channels between cells)
why does the water have to stop using the apoplast pathway when it reaches the endodermis it encounters waterproof layer called the casparian strip which contains suberin that is water proof
why is the casparian strip needed water carries minerals and with the apoplast pathway you cant control what enters the xylem but if you force the water through a partially membrane you can control what enters the xylem
how does the water resist gravity when being pulled the xylem with the use of tension
where is the tension needed for water movement come from from transpiration
why does transpiration pull work water is cohesive due to hydrogen bonds
what happens if the cohesion of water in the xylem is broken water cant carry on up the xylem
if a bubble is introduced how does the plant overcome the broken cohesion water moves laterally to another xylem vessel
how does water not fall down the xylem when transpiration is low it adheres to the walls of the xylem
name two other ways apart from transpiration pull that water can move up the xylem capillary action and hydrostatic pressure (mass flow from high pressure to low pressure)
why is transpiration inevitable stomata are open anyway for photosynthesis so water can evaporate
what is transpiration rate affected by temperature wind humidity
what are xerophytes plants that live in hot dry places
how are xerophytes adapted to their environment small/less stomata rolled leaves stomata on underside thick waxy cuticle hairs around stomata stomata sunken in leaf small surface area of leaves high solute concentration in cells
what does a potometer measure rate of transpiration
why is a potometer an estimate we are assuming all water taken up is transpired
what should you do when setting up a potometer cut shoot at an angle make sure leaves are dry make sure shoot is healthy make sure shoot has leaves make sure rubber tubing is water tight assemble underwater
what are hydrophytes plants that live in aquatic environments
what adaptions do hydrophytes have air spaces in leaf-so they can float and as storage for oxygen stomata on upperside of leaf flexible stems
what does phloem consist of sieve vessel elements and companion cells
what is the transport of sugars called translocation
what are the end plates of sieve elements called and how are they adapted sieve plates and they have pores in them call sieve pores that allow free movement
what is in phloem vessels cellulose cell wall, plasma membrane, cytoplasm, ER and mitochondria
why does phloem only have a small volume of cytoplasm to reduce resistance
whats different about the vacuole, mitochondria and ribosomes of a companion cell smaller and not centered and mitochondria and ribosomes are larger
how are the companion cells connected to the sieve elements through cytoplasmic strands passing through the plasmodesmata
what are sugars called assimilates
what is in phloem sap large concentrations of sucrose, potassium ions, amino acids, chloride ions, phosphate ions and some other ions
why is analysing phloem hard if sieve element is damaged then pores are blocked with protein then protein replaced with carbohydrate callose
where is sucrose loaded into the sieve elements from the place where it was made/stored this is called the source
what happens when sucrose is loaded into the sieve element water potential is lowered so water follows by osmosis
what is the sink the tissues and organs where sucrose is delivered to
why is the process of sugars moving from the source to the sink passive it is moving down a concentration gradient and so doesnt need energy
how does sucrose flow through the phloem pressure difference between the source and the sink
how does sucrose move out of the mesophyll cells to the companion cell using the apoplast and symplast pathway
what moves sucrose into the companion cell a coprotein found in the membrane
where does the energy come from to load the sucrose into the companion cell from the movement of H+ moving down the concentration gradient
process of assimilate loading needs atp getting the the H+ out of the companion cell
how does sugar get from the companion cell into the sieve element down a concentration gradient through the plasmodesmata
what happens to sucrose once in the sink either gets turned into glucose by the enzyme invertase or into starch
what is the evidence for mass flow of sucrose the rate is 10000 faster than just diffusion alone and are similar to those of using a pressure gradient
what is the evidence for sucrose loading sap has a high PH plus there is an electrical difference across the companion cell
Created by: amberhughesswim



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