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AP Bio Chapter 9

TermDefinition
Anti parallel Pertaining to molecular orientation in which a molecule to parts of a molecule have opposing directions.
Bacteriophage Any of a group of viruses that infect bacteria.
Base Pair In double-stranded DNA, a pair of nucleotides formed by the complementary base pairing of a purine on one strand and a pyrimidine on the other.
Deoxyribonucleotide Triphosphate The raw materials for DNA synthesis: deoxyadenosine triphosphate (dATP), deoxythymidine triphosphate (dTTP), deoxycytidine triphosphate (dCTP), and deoxyguanosine triphosphate (dGTP).
DNA ligase Enzyme that unites broken DNA strands during replication and recombination.
DNA polymerase Any of a group of enzymes that catalyze the formation of DNA strands from a DNA template.
helical Shaped like a screw or spring; occurs in DNA and proteins.
Lagging strand In DNA replication, the daughter strand that is synthesized in discontinuous stretches.
Leading Strand In DNA replication, the daughter strand that is synthesized continuously.
Okazaki Fragments Newly formed DNA making up the lagging strand in DNA replication.
Origin of Replication DNA sequence at which helicase unwinds the DNA double helix and DNA polymerase binds to initiate DNA replication.
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) An enzymatic technique for the rapid production of millions of copies of a particular stretch of DNA where only a small amount of the parent molecule is available.
Primase An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of a primer for DNA replication.
Primer Strand of nucleic acid, usually RNA, that is the necessary starting material for the synthesis of a new DNA strand, which is synthesized from the 3' end of the primer.
Processive Pertaining to an enzyme that catalyzes many reactions each time it binds to a substrate, as DNA polymerase does during DNA replication.
Replication Fork A point at which a DNA molecule is replicating.
Semiconservative Replication Replication The way in which DNA is synthesized. Each of the two partner strands in a double helix acts as a template for a new partner strand.
Template A molecule or surface on which another molecule is synthesized in complementary fashion, as in the replication of DNA.
Transformation A mechanism for transfer of genetic information in bacteria in which pure DNA from a bacterium of one genotype is taken through the cell surface of a bacterium of a different genotype and incorporated into the chromosome of the recipient cell.
Transgenic Containing recombinant DNA incorporated into the genetic material.
Somatic Mutation Permanent genetic change in a somatic cell. These mutations affect the individual only; they are not passed on to offspring
Mutation A change in the genetic material not caused by recombination
Germ Line Mutation produces gametes
Exons A portion of a DNA molecule, in eukaryotes, that codes for part of a polypeptide
Introns Portion of a gene within the coding region that is transcribed into pre-mRNA but is spliced out prior to translation
Silent Mutation A change in a gene's sequence that has no effect on the amino acid sequence of a protein because it occurs in noncoding DNA or because it does not change the amino acid specified by the corresponding codon.
Point Mutation A mutation that results from the gain, loss, or substitution of a single nucleotide
Mutagen Any agent that increases the mutation rate
Deletion mutation resulting form the loss of a continuous segment of a gene or chromosome. almost never revert to wild type
Duplication mutation in which a segment of a chromosome is duplicated, often by the attachment of a segment lost from its homolog
Inversion rare 180 degree reversal of the order of genes within a segment of a chromosome
Translocation rare mutation event that moves a portion of a new chromosome to a new location, generally on a non homologous chromosome
Created by: thatchickbay_