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Bio. Genetics

QuestionAnswer
Heredity The passing of genetic traits from parent to offspring
Trait A genetically determined variant of a characteristic
Pollination The transfer of pollen from the male reproductive structures to the tip of a female reproductive structure of a flower in angiosperms or to the ovule in gymnosperms
Cross-Pollination A reproductive process in which pollen from one plant is transferred to the stigma of another plant
True-Breeding Describes the allele that's fully expressed when carried by only one of a pair of homologous chromosomes
Recessive Describes a trait or an allele that's expressed only when two recessive alleles for the same characteristic are inherited
Law of Segregation Mendel's law that states that the pairs of homologous chromosomes separate in meiosis so that only one chromosome from each pair is present in each gamete
Law of Independent Assortment The law that states that genes separate independently of one another in meiosis
Allele One of the alternative forms of a gene that governs a characteristic
Genotype The entire genetic makeup of an organism
Phenotype An organism's appearance or other detectable characteristic that results from the organism's genotype and the environment
Homozygous Describes an individual that has identical alleles for a trait on both homologous chromosomes
Heterozygous Describes an individual that has two different alleles for a trait
Probability The likelihood that a possible future event will occur in any given instance of the event
Mono-hybrid Cross A cross between individuals that involves one pair of contrasting traits
Punnet Square A graphic used to predict the results of a genetic cross
Genotypic Ratio The ratio of the genotypes that appear in offspring
Phenotypic Ratio The ratio of phenotypes produced by a cross
Test-cross The crossing of an individual of unknown genotype with a homozygous recessive individual to determine the unknown genotype
Incomplete Dominance A condition in which a trait in an individual is intermediate between the phenotype of the individual's two parents because the dominate allele is unable to express itself fully
Codominace A condition in which both alleles for a gene are fully expressed
Di-hybrid Cross A cross between individuals that have different alleles for the same gene
Anther In flowering plants, the tip of a stamen, which contains the pollen sacs where grains form
Stigma The expanded apex of a pistil, supported by the style
Molecular Genetics The study of the structure of nucleic acids and the function and regulation of genes
Carrier An individual who has one copy of a recessive autosomal allele that causes disease in the homozygous condition
Sex-linked Inheritance A trait that's coded for by an allele an on a sex chromosome
Created by: archergirl