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Musculoskeletal 12

The Musculoskeletal System 12 LPN

Born with around 350 bones
206 bones by adulthood
Bones will grow together to form one bone
Bones work with joints
cartilage hard connective tissue found at the end of bones, tip of nose, larynx, and trachea
ligament band of connective tissue that connects a bone to another bone
tendon fibrous connective tissue that attaches bone to muscle
Functions Support, Protection, Movement, Mineral Storage
Hematopoesis Blood Cells Form Done in red bone morrow of some bones
Bone Tissue Compact Bones, Spongy Bones
An organ that has their own blood supply, lymph vessels and nerves Bones
Compact Bones Dense and Hard
Compact Bones makes up shaft of long bones and outer layer of other bones
Spongy Bones Have more spaces than compact bones
Spongy Bones made up with mesh - like material filled with bone marrow. Found at the end of long ones and center of other bones
Red Marrow Produces Red Blood Cells
Yellow Marrow Found mainly in center of long bones, Comprised of fat
osteoblasts bone producing cells, these cells also help repair bones.
osteocytes cells that maintain existing bone.
osteoclasts responsible for bone tissue re-absorption, necessary for bone repair, during growth, and after injury
Long Bones ex. Humerous
short bones ex. carpals
flat bones ex. skull
irregular ex. vertebrae
Diaphysis long shaft, found in skeletal bones of arms and legs
Medullary cavity center of diaphysis, contains bone marrow
Epipysis irregular ends of bones
Epipyseal Line growth occurs here. When this seals, growth stops. Drs. use this as a guide to determine if children are going to grow anymore.
Joints hold bones together, allows movement
Hyoid Bone Only bone in body not connected
Synarthrosis (Fibrous) Held together by fibrous tissue, no movement (sutures of skull)
Amphilathroses (cartilaginous) connected by cartilage, joint has slight movement, pelvis, joints between vertebrae
Diaphroses (synovial) have space, joint cavity, with synovial fluid. Joints that permit movement in 1,2 or many directions, wrist, ankle, fingers, elbow, hip
Axial Center or Axis Bones skull, Spine, Chest, Hyoid
Cranium chamber that encloses the brain
8 Cranial Bones frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal, ethmoid, sphenoid
Facial Bones make up face, orbits and sinuses
8 Facial Bones mandible, maxillae, zygomatic, nasal bones, lacrimal, vomer, palentine, inferior nasal conchae
Vertebral Column Cervical, Thoracic, Lumbar, Sacrum, Coccyx
Vertebral Column bony sheath that protects spinal column
Vertebrae drum shaped body, serves as weight bearing structure.
acts as shock absorbers and provides flexibility discs and cartilage between vertebrae
Spinous Process projections from the bony arch that encircles the spinal cord
Foramen hole in center of vertebrae
Thorax 12 pairs of ribs, 1-7 true ribs, 8-10 false ribs, 11-12 floating ribs
Smooth Muscles Make up walls of organs, Involuntary and have single, central nucleus. contract in response to nerve impulse, hormone stimulation, stretching or other stimuli
Cardiac Muscles Stiated, involuntary, one nucleus. Electrical impulses, hormones, nervous system produce contractions
Skeletal Muscles striated, multiple nuclei, attach to bones and produce movement at joints
Functions of Muscles Movement of skeleton, maintain posture, generation of heat - natural by product of muscle cell metabolism
Individual muscle fibers are surrounded by connective tissue called endomysium
Each bundle of muscle (fascia) is covered with more connective tissue called permysium
Entire muscle is then covered by more connective tissue called epimysium
Skeletal muscle fibers are stimulated by nerve impulses from CNS
Neuromuscular Junction contact point where nerve and muscle meet (Don't actually touch - synapse)
Contractility ability of muscles to shorten and change shape.
Contractions promote posture and produce heat
Muscles have threads that contain proteins called actin and myosin
Actin light and thin threads
Myosin thick and dark threads
Overlapping threads slide together, the muscles contracts and they become shorter
For muscles to contract they also need ATP and Calcium
ATP energy
Isotonic tone or tension remains same, but muscle shortens with movement (lifting weights, running, walking)
Isometric No change in muscle length, but there is an increase in muscle tension (gluteal squeezes, pressing palms together)
Origin less movable part of attachment
Insertion action part of the muscle
Created by: Myssi76