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1.2 IB bio

Ultrastructure of cells

What does a cell do? Different cells have different jobs, but most commonly cells can be considered miniature protein factories
Proteins Can do many things such as: Locomotion: muscle is made largely of protein Life functions: All of the life functions performed by cells are assisted by enzymes which are catalytic proteins
Kingdoms of life (U1 + 2) 1) Achaebacteria - extremophiles 2) Eubacteria - E-coli 3) Protists - Single/multi cell - no tissue 4) Fungi - Multi cellular W tissue 5) Plants - Multi cellular W tissue 6) Animals - Multi cellular W tissue
Prokaryote (U1 + 2) Do NOT have membrane-bound organelles, NO nucleus (DNA in nucleoid region)
Eukaryote (U1 + 2) Have membrane-bound organelles, YES nucleus, mitochondrian, chloroplast, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus, vesicles, etc
Electron microscope (U3) Electron microscopes have a much higher resolution than light microscopes
Draw Prokaryote (S1) N/A
Draw Eukaryote (S2) N/A
Binary Fission (A2) Is a simple cell division. There is no nucleus disappearance/reformation and organelles do not need to be replicated and seperated
Plasma membrane (A1) --Composed of a phospholipid bilayer --A membrane surrounds the cell --Other membranes surround certain organelles --The ER is made of a plasma membrane --The plasma membrane controls entry and exit of material into and out of the cell
Nucleus (A1) -- Double membrane bound, containing pores for RNA and ribosomes to exit the nucleus --Contains chromosomes made of DNA and protein
Ribosomes (A1) -- Made of RNA -- 'Read' genetic information (RNA, which is a copy og a DNA section) and produce protein based on this
Endoplasmis reticulum (A1) -- Consists of flattened membrane sacs (cisternae) -- Ribosomes are often attached to outside of cisternae (rER) -- Proteins made by ribosomes enter cisternae -- Then packaged in vesicles (membrane-bound spheres) -- Vesicles transport them to golgi.
Golgi Apparatus (A1) -- Consists of flattened membrane sacs (cisternae) -- 'proteins' are received and processed -- Vesicles of material exit golgi and are secreted from the cell by exocytosis or stay in the cell for intracellular use
Vacoules (A1) -- Membrane-bound storage structures that are usually: -- Produced by the golgi and contain proteins made by the cell -- Brought into the cell by endocytosis
Lysosome (A1) -- Special vesicles formed by golgi -- Contain hydrolytic/digestive enzymes for breaking down: -- Ingested nutrients -- Damaged organelles -- Entire cells
Mitochondria (A1) -- Double membrane-bound -- Inner membrane infolded to form cristae -- Site of aerobic cellular respiration producing ATP -- Makes useable energy for the cell -- ATP is the energy molecule used by cells to perform chemical reactions necessary for life
Chloroplast (A1) -- Double membrane-bound -- Inner membrane compartments form thylakoids -- Photosynthesis in the thylakoids produces carbohydrates (food) for the cell -- Plants make the food through the chloroplast then the mitochondria makes it into usable energy
Cell walls (A1) -- Animal cells do not have cell walls, but most other types of cells do -- Cell walls provide protection and support for cell/organism -- Help cell maintain its shape -- Prevent cell from bursting
Exocrine glands of the pancreas (A1) -- Ribosomes make digestive enzymes -- The digestive enzymes are exocytosed by the golgi into ducts that drain into the small intestine where digestion takes place
Palisade mesophyll cells of the leaf (A1) -- Much of the photosynthesis takes place in the palisade mesophyll cells of the leaf, so these cells contain many chloroplasts -- Cell walls will also be present
Interpreting micrographs (S3) Many mitochondria may indicate a lot of energy is required by the cell Eg. a muscle cell
Created by: averyschwarz



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