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1.1 IB bio

Introduction to Cells

Magnification Calculation (S1) Image/Actual
Cm (S1) 1 * 10^-2
Mm (S1) 1 * 10^-3
Un (S1) 1 * 10^-6
Nm (S1) 1 * 10^-9
Robert Hooke (U1) First to coin cell (1655) (Cork tree)
Anton Van Leevwehoek (U1) First observation of living cells (1674)
Cell theory (3 points) (U1) 1) All living things are made of one or more cell 2) All cells come from pre-existing cells 3) The cell is the smallest unit of life
Cell theory exception (U1) First life on earth
Functions of life (7) (U2) Nutrition Metabolism Growth Response Excretion Homoeostasis Reproduction
Paramecium + Chlorella (A2) N/A
Exceptions of cell theory (3) (A1) Skeletal Muscle Fungal Hyphae Giant Algae
Skeletal muscle (A1) Have cells with a single membrane but multiple nuclei
Fungal Hyphae (A1) Have cells with a single membrane but multiple nuclei
Giant Algae (A1) Cells have a single nucleus but are gigantic and have 3 complex and distinct anatomical parts
SA/volume ratio (U3) --SA of a membrane must be large enough to absorb nutrients, oxygen,other needed substances and to excrete waste products. --Need for nutrients and waste produced is determined by cell volume. --Small cells have larger SA/volume ratio than larger cells
Emergent Properties (U4) --Arise from the interaction of component parts - completely unpredictable --Cells interact to produce a tissue/organ/organism that can do things none of the individual cells could do. -- Eg. Individual brain neurons- full brain
Specialized tissues and differentiation (U5 + U6) --Every somatic (body) cell has the same genes and could develop in any way --Depending on position of each cell and cell to cell signalling such as with hormones, particular genes are switched on adn others are switched off
Specialized tissues and differentiation (U5 + U6) - Continued -- This determines development of the cells -- A group of these differentiated cells becomes a tissue
Stem cells (U7) -- Stem cells are undifferentiated (no function) -- They retain capacity to divide and have ability to differentiate along different paths into all types of cells (pluripotent/totipotent)
Where are stem cells derived from? (A3) -- Human embryos -- Leftover from IVF -- From the placenta -- The umbilical cord -- Adult tissue
Steps of stem cell work (A3) -- Desired type of stem cell is identified, extracted and grown -- Then placed in biochemical solution that will cause cells to differentiate into desired type -- Then implanted into patient's own tissues so they function with the body's natural cells
Stem cells - Stargardts (A3) -- New technologies rely on replacing diseased/dysfunctional cells with healthy/functioning ones -- Embryotic stem cells are isolated and injected into retina -- Cells differentiate into retinal cells -- Treatment is in clinical trials
Stem cells - Leukemia (A3) -- Bone marrow cancer -- Lots of non-functioning white blood cells --Treatment: Remove marrow (marrow produces blood-cells) -- Lost cells must be replaced
Stem cells - Leukemia (A3) Continued -- Haematopoetic stem cells are harvested from a healthy person's bone marrow -- Cells then used to replace cancerous bone marrow after chemo destroys cancerous tissues.
Ethics of stem cells - Pros (A4) Some diseases (like stargardts) have no other means of treatment -- Outcome of other diseases ( like Leukemia) are largely improved
Ethics of stem cells - Cons (A4) --Specially created embryos: Religious and moral objection to detroying human embryos -- Umbilical cords:Playing god - it's unnatural -- Adult tissues: Research is very expensive and money may be spent in better ways -- All apply to above
Created by: averyschwarz



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