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Micro-Life Unit Test

What are four ways in which diseases are caused? Heredity, environment, lifestyle, germs
What does the term infectious mean? cause by germs, easily spread
If an infectious disease is spreading through a population, what initially happens to the number of people infected? In the beginning it increases.
Give three examples of an infectious disease. Influenza, common cold, chicken pox
Give three examples of disease that are not infectious. Cancer, diabetes, Alzheimer's, pellagra, color blindness,
Define Epidemiologist. A scientist that studies the path in which a disease spreads and ways to prevent it.
Define a vector and give three examples. An organism that carries a disease causing germ and spreads it to a human without getting sick itself. Examples: mosquitos, ticks, fleas, and tse tse fly
Explain what it means to quarantine. Isolate an infected person to prevent the spread of disease to healthy people.
What are some trade-offs to quarantining and not quarantining? To Quarantine: miss work/school, miss friends and family/lonely, cost Not to Quarantine: disease will spread, cost of treatment, shortage of medication
What does the cell theory state? All living things are made of cells, all cells arise from cells, and cell is the basic unit of structure of a living organism.
What does the Germ Theory of Disease state? Microbes cause disease.
Define multicellular. Organisms that are made up of more than one cell.
Define Cellular Respiration. The process in which cells will exchange gas to break down sugar/nutrients to produce useable energy.
What are two things that enter the cell for cellular respiration? Food and oxygen.
How do they get into the cell? Enters through the cell membrane.
Why are cells small? Small cells as a group have more membrane surface area. This allows to take in more oxygen and nutrients all at once and fortify the organism faster.
What is the purpose of the cell membrane? The cell membrane controls what enters and leaves the cell, to protect the cell from outside environment, to separate the cell from one another, holds the inside structures together.
Put the following terms in order from smallest to largest. organelles, organ, organism, organ system, cells, tissue Organelles, cells, tissue, organ, organ system, organism
It is often said that the shape of a cell is related to their job red blood cell-concave: To increase the membrane surface area to absorb more oxygen, white blood cells- ruffles on the membrane allows it to crawl and attach itself to the walls of the vain and find germs and kill them
Where is the genetic material in an animal cell found? In the nucleus.
What are four structures that a plant and animal cell have in common? Cytoplasm, nucleus, cell membrane, nuclear membrane
What are two structures that a plant cell has that an animal cell does not? Cell wall, chloroplast
What gives the plant cell structure and support? Cell wall
Define microbe. Give some examples. Living organism too small to see without a microscope. They are microscopic during their entire life time. Examples: bacteria, paramecium, fungi, mold, algae
What are the main categories of microbes? Virus, bacteria, protist
Classification of unknown organisms is based mostly on what? structure
List the three types of microbes in order from smallest to largest. Virus, bacteria, protist
Where can we find bacteria? Everywhere
Give three characteristics of bacteria. No nucleus, cell wall, grouped by shape
What are two differences between a bacteria and a human cell? Bacteria doesn't have a nucleus and it has a cell wall.
Give three characteristics of a virus. Non-living, genetic material not in nucleus, smallest (not cell)
Give two differences between a virus and a bacteria. Virus isn't living and bacteria has a cell wall and is living.
Give three examples of protists you viewed under the microscope. Amoeba, paramecium, euglena
What is the function of a white blood cell? Defends body against foreign invaders.
What is the function of a red blood cell? Carries oxygen to all cells of the body.
What are the four types of blood? A, B, AB, O
What happens when you are given an incompatible blood type? Clumps (clotting)
What causes this to happen? The white blood cells attack it.
What are some of the first defenses our bodies use to fight off infection? Skin, mucus, saliva, tears
Explain what a vaccine is and how it works. Dead or weakened form or part of a microbe; lets body form immunities to a disease to prevent disease.
What are vaccines used for? To prevent diseases.
What type of microbe does an antibiotic such as penicillin kill? Bacteria
Who first discovered penicillin? Alexander Fleming
What is the purpose of a microscope? Observe items too small to be seen with eyes.
Explain the proper way to focus a microscope. Slide on the stage-low power-move stage away from object with coarse adjustment knob.
Explain the proper way to carry a microscope. One hand on the handle and one hand on the base.
Explain how you determine the magnification of your specimen. Multiply the eye piece (10x) by the objective (10x or 40x) to get total magnification.
Created by: AJudith