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Plate Tectonics

Unit 7 Plate Tectonics

TermDefinition
Asthenosphere is the highly viscous, mechanically weak and ductilely deforming region of the upper mantle of the Earth
Continental Drift Continental drift is the movement of the Earth's continents relative to each other, thus appearing to "drift" across the ocean bed. The speculation that continents might have 'drif
Lithosphere solid outer section of Earth, which includes Earth's crust (the "skin" of rock on the outer layer of planet Earth), as well as the underlying cool, dense, and rigid upper part of the upper mantle.
Pangaea hypothetical supercontinent that included all current land masses, believed to have been in existence before the continents broke apart during the Triassic and Jurassic Periods.
Plate thin, flat sheet or strip of metal or other material, typically one used to join or strengthen things or forming part of a machine.
Plate Tectonics plate tectonics in Science Expand. plate tectonics. In geology, a theory that the Earth's lithosphere (the crust and upper mantle) is divided into a number of large, platelike sections that move as distinct masses.
Seafloor Spreading Seafloor spreading is a process that occurs at mid-ocean ridges, where new oceanic crust is formed through volcanic activity and then gradually moves away from the ridge.
Abyssal plains abyssal plain is an underwater plain on the deep ocean floor, usually found at depths between 3000 and 6000 m.
Trench a long, narrow ditch.
Subduction zone subduction zone is a boundary where two tectonic plates collide and, because of differences in density, one dives beneath the other
Convection Convection is heat transfer by mass motion of a fluid such as air or water when the heated fluid is caused to move away from the source of heat, carrying energy with it.
Earthquake a sudden and violent shaking of the ground, sometimes causing great destruction, as a result of movements within the earth's crust or volcanic action.
Epicenter the point on the earth's surface vertically above the focus of an earthquake.
Fault an unattractive or unsatisfactory feature, especially in a piece of work or in a person's character.
Focus the center of interest or activity.
Magnitude the great size or extent of something.
Normal Fault Normal faults occur where two blocks of rock are pulled apart, as by tension. Compare reverse fault.
Reverse Fault Reverse faults occur where two blocks of rock are forced together by compression
P-Wave P-waves are a type of body wave, called seismic waves in seismology, that travel through a continuum and are the first waves from an earthquake to arrive at a seismograph
S-Wave An S wave, or shear wave, is a seismic body wave that shakes the ground back and forth perpendicular to the direction the wave is moving
Seismograph an instrument that measures and records details of earthquakes, such as force and duration.
Strike-Slip Fault a fault in which rock strata are displaced mainly in a horizontal direction, parallel to the line of the fault.
Tsunami a long high sea wave caused by an earthquake, submarine landslide, or other disturbance.
Batholith a very large igneous intrusion extending deep in the earth's crust.
Caldera a large volcanic crater, typically one formed by a major eruption leading to the collapse of the mouth of the volcano.
Cinder Cone Volcano A steep, conical hill consisting of glassy volcanic fragments that accumulate around and downwind from a volcanic vent.
Dike a long wall or embankment built to prevent flooding from the sea.
Hot Spot a small area or region with a relatively hot temperature in comparison to its surroundings.
Shield Volcano A shield volcano is a type of volcano usually built almost entirely of fluid magma flows.
Sill a shelf or slab of stone, wood, or metal at the foot of a window or doorway.
Volcano a mountain or hill, typically conical, having a crater or vent through which lava, rock fragments, hot vapor, and gas are being or have been erupted from the earth's crust.
Anticline a ridge-shaped fold of stratified rock in which the strata slope downward from the crest.
Syncline a trough or fold of stratified rock in which the strata slope upward from the axis.
Tension the state of being stretched tight.
Shear break off or cause to break off, owing to a structural strain.
Uplift elevate or stimulate (someone) morally or spiritually.
Fissure a long, narrow opening or line of breakage made by cracking or splitting, especially in rock or earth.
Pyroclastic flow a dense, destructive mass of very hot ash, lava fragments, and gases ejected explosively from a volcano and typically flowing downslope at great speed.
Geyser a hot spring in which water intermittently boils, sending a tall column of water and steam into the air.
Created by: DylanMcCarty22