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Genetics Review Andr


Question or TermsAnswers
Homozygous Dominant Genotype AA
Homozygous Recessive Genotype aa
Heterozygous Genotype Aa
AA or aa Purebred
Aa Hybrid
Heredity The passing of traits form one generation to another
DNA Determines what traits are passed from one generation to the next
Deoxyribonucleic Acid DNA
Tightly coiled structures that contain genetic information Chromosomes
DNA is located in the Nucleus
Chromosomes are made of Tightly coiled DNA
Genes are located in a strand of DNA
Alleles Different forms of the gene for a specific trait
We inherit how many pairs of chromosomes from our parents 23
Humans have a total of _____ chromosomes 46
Sigle celled organisms undergo mitosis which is a form of Asexual reproduction
Asexual reproduction Involves only one parent
Sexual reproduction Involves two parents
Gametes are types of what kind of cell Sex cells
Sperm and Egg Examples of Gametes
Segment of DNA that determines a particular trait Gene
The set of genes an organism carries Genotype
3 Kinds of Genotypes Homozygous Recessive, Homozygous Dominant, Heterozygous
The physical traits of an organism Phenotype
Example of a Phenotype Brown eyes , brown hair, tall
The trait that is always expressed in the phenotype Dominant Trait
Recessive trait Trait that is only expressed if both alleles are recessive
What % is each block in a Punnett square worth 25%
The cross that shows the inheritance of only one trait Monohybrid Cross
What are Punnett Squares used for To predict the ratio or percentage of offspring with different genes inherited, based on the genes of their parents
Inherited trait Genetically determines characteristic that gets passed from parent to offspring
One allele is not dominant over the other, Both dominant, shared dominance, both present in the organism Co-Dominance
Neither allele is completely dominant, blended Incomplete Dominance
Physical characteristics can be affected by Genetics and the Environment
Scientist Who discovered the principles of Genetics Gregor Mendel
Gregor Mendel Father of Genetics
Red Flower crossed with White Flower = Pink Flower Incomplete Dominance
Change in the DNA of a gene Mutation
Mutations can be caused by 2 factors Genetics and Environmental Factors
A genotype of an organism is represented by 2 Letters - AA Aa aa
The Phenotype of an organism is due to it's Genotype
Genetics Diagram is called Punnet Square
Different Versions of a gene for a single trait Allele
Recessive alleles are represented with a Lower case Letter
Dominant alleles are represented by a Upper case letter
Organization of the human body, largest to smallest (put in order) - Cell chromosome Nucleus allele gene cell, nucleus, chromosome, gene, allele
Version of the gene that is hidden by another Recessive Trait
Instruction Manual for humans DNA
Identical copy of an organism Clone
Process done with dogs to get a specific trait Selective breeding
Mutation that is Beneficial and Harmful Sickle Cell Anemia
Genetic Engineering examples Dog Breeding, Selective Breeding
Random Change in the genes of an organism Genetic Mutation
Chromosomes are found in the Nucleus
Offspring are identical to the parents Asexual Reproduction
Offspring are different from the parents Sexual Reproduction
Created by: Ms.Andreascience