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Chapter 10

Fetal Development and Genetics

When is the PREembryonic stage? Fertilization through the second week.
When is the embryonic stage? The end of the second week through the 8th week.
When is the Fetal Stage? End of the 8th week until birth.
What is Fertilization? When an egg and sperm meet, they form a zygote.
When is sex determined? At the time of fertilization.
What are the 3 embryonic layers? Ectoderm, Mesoderm, Endoderm.
What is Ectoderm? it forms the circulatory system, special senses, skin and glands.
What is Mesoderm? it forms skeletal, urinary, circulatory, and reproductive organs.
What is Endoderm? it forms respiratory/digestive systems, liver and pancreas.
What is Zona Pellucida? it is a clear layer protein
What are the horomones produced by the placenta? hCG, hPL, hCS, estrogen, relaxinin, progesterone.
What is the umbilical cord formed by? amnion.
What does the umbilical cord contain? 1 large vein and 2 small arteries.
What is Whartons Jelly? It surrounds the vein and arteries in the umbilical cord to prevent compression.
If a babys' lungs aren't developed, they will give the mother a Steroid shot called celestone.
What is ductus venosus? It connects the umbilical vein to the inferior vena cava.
What is ductus arteriosus? It connects the main pulmonary artery to the aorta.
What is Foramen Ovale? Anatomic opening between the R/L atrium.
What is pharmacogenomics? The study of genetic and genomic influences on pharmacodynamics and pharmacotherapeutics.
A genome is a persons genetic blueprint and it determines genotype and phenotype.
A genotype is Genes inherited by the parents
A phenotype is observed outward characteristics.
A chromosome is long, continuous strand of DNA carrying genetic information.
A Karyotype is pictorial analysis of number, form, and size of chromosomes.
Karyotypes use what type of cells in amniotic fluid? Fetal and WBC.