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Biotechnology Ch 13

TermDefinition
Genetic engineering Technology that involves manipulating the DNA of one organism in order to insert exogenous DNA (DNA from another organism)
Genome The total DNA present in the nucleus of each cell of an organism
Restriction enzymes Proteins that recognize and bind to specific DNA sequences and cleave the DNA within that sequence.
gel electrophoresis A process in which an electric current is used to separate DNA fragments according to the size of the fragments.
Recombinant DNA A generated DNA molecule with DNA from different sources
DNA ligase an enzyme that joins two DNA fragments chemically. It joins fragments with sticky ends or blunt ends.
Plasmids small, circular, double stranded DNA molecules that occur naturally in bacteria and yeast that are used as vectors (cut with enzymes and DNA inserted)
Transformation A process in which bacterial cells take up recombinant plasmid DNA
Cloning Process in which large numbers of identical recombinant DNA molecules are produced. (copies of DNA using a plasmid vector)
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) A technique that makes millions of copies of a specific region of a DNA fragment (amplification of DNA without using recombinant DNA vector)
Transgenic organisms Organisms such as plants, animals or bacteria that have been genetically engineered by inserting a gene from another organism.
DNA fingerprinting Separating DNA fragments using gel electrophoresis to observe distinct banding patterns that are unique to every individual.
Bioinformatics A field of study that creates and maintains databases of biological information for analysis
DNA miocroarrays Silicon chips or microscope slides with DNA fragments that allow many genes in a genome to be studied at once.
Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) Single nucleotide substitutions that occur in more than 1% of the population. SNPs occurring within a gene create different alleles. SNPs can occur in noncoding regions.
Haplotypes Regions of linked variations in the human genome that tend to be inherited together
Pharmacogenomics The study of how genetic inheritance affects the body's response to drugs
Gene therapy A technique aimed at correcting mutated genes that cause human diseases.
Genomics The study of an organism's genome
Proteomics The large-scale study and cataloging of the structure and function of proteins in the human body.
Created by: PRO Teacher jhaase