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Biology Ch. 12

Inheritance Patterns

Autosomes Chromosomes with normal genes and proteins
Sex chromosomes Chromosomes that determine if the person is male or female
Sex-linked traits Traits coded for by an allele on a sex chromosome
Mendel Came up with Law of Independent Assortment
Morgan Came up with concept of linked genes
Linked genes are inherited together often because they are so close together on chromosome
Chromosomal map diagram to show the linear order of genes on a chromosome
Map unit frequency of crossing over as one percent
Mutation any change in the DNA sequence
Germ-cell mutation mutation in the gametes
Somatic cell mutation mutation in the body cells
Deletion chromosomal mutation- gene is lost
Inversion chromosomal mutation- gene is flipped around
Translocation chromosomal mutation- gene is moved somewhere else
Duplication chromosomal mutation- gene is repeated
Point mutation gene mutation- base is switched, deleted, or inserted
Frameshift mutation gene mutation- incorrect grouping of the codons, gets wrong amino acid
Pedigree diagram that shows how a trait is inherited over several generations
Autosomal dominant type of pedigree- trait seen in every generation
Autosomal recessive type of pedigree- trait normally seen in every other generation
Sex-linked type of pedigree- trait depends on X and Y chromosomes
Polygenetic inheritance traits are influenced by several genes
Complex characters inheritance traits are influenced by genetics and environment (usually nutrition)
Multiple alleles inheritance more than two options for alleles
Single-alleles inheritance only one allele- either you have it or you don't
X-linked inheritance found more often in males than females
Codominance shows both versions equally
Incomplete dominance shows a mix of the versions
Epigenetics coming somewhere other than inherited genes
Epistasis multiple traits can mask each other
Pleiotropy one gene affects several traits
Genetic screening examining the genetic makeup
Amniocentesis removing amniotic fluid to test for genetic disorders in the fetus
Chorionic villi sampling removing cells from between the uterus and placenta to test for genetic disorders
Karyotype micrograph of the chromosomes in a cell from metaphase
Genetic counseling process of informing a person of their genetic makeup to make mathematical guesses, based on Punnett squares, pedigrees, and family history
Created by: alicemb00