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Unit 7 Tectonics

TermDefinition
Asthenosphere the upper layer of the earth's mantle, below the lithosphere, in which there is relatively low resistance to plastic flow and convection is thought to occur.
Continental Drift the gradual movement of the continents across the earth's surface through geological time.
Lithosphere the rigid outer part of the earth, consisting of the crust and upper mantle.
Pangaea a hypothetical supercontinent that included all current land masses.
Plate each of the several rigid pieces of the earth's lithosphere that together make up the earth's surface.
Plate tectonics a theory explaining the structure of the earth's crust and many associated phenomena as resulting from the interaction of rigid lithospheric plates that move slowly over the underlying mantle.
Seafloor spreading the formation of new areas of oceanic crust, which occurs through the upwelling of magma at midocean ridges and its subsequent outward movement on either side.
Abyssal plains an underwater plain on the deep ocean floor, usually found at depths between 3000 and 6000 m.
Trench a long, narrow, deep depression in the ocean floor, typically one running parallel to a plate boundary and marking a subduction zone.
Subduction zone the biggest crash scene on Earth. These boundaries mark the collision between two of the planet's tectonic plates.
Convection he movement caused within a fluid by the tendency of hotter and therefore less dense material to rise, and colder, denser material to sink under the influence of gravity, which consequently results in transfer of heat.
Earthquake a sudden and violent shaking of the ground, sometimes causing great destruction, as a result of movements within the earth's crust or volcanic action.
Epicenter the point on the earth's surface vertically above the focus of an earthquake.
Fault (of a rock formation) be broken by a fault or faults.
Focus the point of origin of an earthquake.
Magnitude the great size or extent of something.
Normal Fault A geologic fault in which the hanging wall has moved downward relative to the footwall.
Reverse Fault A geologic fault in which the hanging wall has moved upward relative to the footwall.
P-Wave a type of body wave, called seismic waves in seismology, that travel through a continuum and are the first waves from an earthquake to arrive at a seismograph
S-Wave shear wave, is a seismic body wave that shakes the ground back and forth perpendicular to the direction the wave is moving.
Seismograph an instrument that measures and records details of earthquakes, such as force and duration.
Strike-Slip Fault a fault in which rock strata are displaced mainly in a horizontal direction, parallel to the line of the fault.
Tsunami a long high sea wave caused by an earthquake, submarine landslide, or other disturbance.
Batholith a very large igneous intrusion extending deep in the earth's crust
Caldera a large volcanic crater, typically one formed by a major eruption leading to the collapse of the mouth of the volcano.
Cinder Cone Volcano A steep, conical hill consisting of glassy volcanic fragments that accumulate around and downwind from a volcanic vent.
Dike an intrusion of igneous rock cutting across existing strata.
Hot Spot an area of volcanic activity, especially where this is isolated.
Shield Volcano a broad, domed volcano with gently sloping sides, characteristic of the eruption of fluid, basaltic lava.
Sill a tabular sheet of igneous rock intruded between and parallel with the existing strata.
Volcano a mountain or hill, typically conical, having a crater or vent through which lava, rock fragments, hot vapor, and gas are being or have been erupted from the earth's crust.
Anticline a ridge-shaped fold of stratified rock in which the strata slope downward from the crest.
Syncline a trough or fold of stratified rock in which the strata slope upward from the axis.
Tension the state of being stretched tight.
Shear a strain in the structure of a substance produced by pressure, when its layers are laterally shifted in relation to each other.
Uplift lift (something) up; raise.
Fissure split or crack (something) to form a long narrow opening.
Pyroclastic flow a dense, destructive mass of very hot ash, lava fragments, and gases ejected explosively from a volcano and typically flowing downslope at great speed.
Geyser a hot spring in which water intermittently boils, sending a tall column of water and steam into the air.
Created by: 3082697