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Lecture Exam 2

Biology 1108K

Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya Three clades of living organisms
Bacteria and Archaea The main clades that include prokaryotes
Eukarya Includes eukaryotes
Archaea and Eukarya ____ and _____ share a more recent common ancestor than with bacteria
Prokaryote and Eukaryote two cell types
Prokaryotic cell smaller and less complex, single celled, nucleoid and no internal membranes
Prokaryotic cell cell that archaea and bacteria are made of
Eukaryotic cell larger, more complex, can be single or multicellular, has nucleus and membrane bound organelles.
Eukaryotic cell cell that makes up everything except archaea and bacteria
cocci, bacilli, spirilla three common shapes of prokaryotes
Cocci spheres
Bacilli rods
Spirilla spirals, also called spirochetes or vibrios
cell wall maintains shape and provides protection. Prevents cell from lysing in hypotonic environments
cellulose ; chitin ; peptidoglycan major components of cell walls of plants ; fungi ; bacteria
stains purple/blue Gram positive bacteria
stains pink Gram negative bacteria
Gram positive bacteria with more simple cell walls, but a thicker layer or peptidoglycan
Gram negative bacteria with more complex cell walls but less peptidoglycan
Crystal violet used to stain gram positive bacteria
Safranin used to stain gram negative bacteria
Capsule sticky layer of polysaccharides or proteins that aids in attachment to substrate or other prokaryotes
biofilm surface coating colony of bacteria.
biofilm secretes signals that recruit nearby cells, have channels that allow movement of waste and nutrients
Fimbriae and attachment pilli projections that come out of the bacterial cell, but do NOT aid in movement. Aid in attachment and conjugation
sex pillus mating bridge that transfers DNA
Flagella structure used for movement
flagella Analogous structure found in the 3 domains of life
analogous structures ; convergent evolution The flagellum of bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes are _______ and are an example of __________
taxis directed movement towards or away from a stimulus
positive taxis movement TOWARDS a stimulus
negative taxis movement AWAY FROM a stimulus
specialized membranes to perform metabolic functions Prokaryotes don't have organelles, but some have
Respiratory Membrane performs cellular respiration
thylakoid membrane assists in photosynthesis
cyanobacteria first to put oxygen in the atmosphere, use thylakoid membrane
circular ring prokaryotes have a __________ of DNA
nucleoid region Prokaryotic DNA is not surrounded by a nuclear membrane, but is found in the
haploid all prokaryotes have one chromosome, so they are considered
plasmids small rings of independently replicating DNA
Plasmids often codes for antibiotic resistance and assists in the transference of this resistance to other bacteria through conjugation
Endospores resistant, multilayered cells produced under adverse conditions. Copies DNA, removes water, and stops metabolism
binary fission Prokaryotes reproduce via
Autotroph self feeder
Photoautotrophs Energy source: light Carbon source: CO2, HCO3-
cyanobacteria example of a photoautotroph
Chemoautotroph Energy source: Inorganic chemicals Carbon source: CO2, HCO3-
Sulfolobus example of a chemoautotroph
Heterotroph energy from another organism
Photoheterotroph Energy Source: light Carbon source: organic compounds Unique to certain aquatic and salt-loving prokaryotes
Rhodobacter, Chloroflexus example of a photoheterotroph
Chemoheterotrophs Energy source: organic compounds Carbon source: organic compounds
Archaea Domain with no peptidoglycan
Anaerobes Many archaea are _______
obligate anaerobe can't live in the presence of oxygen
facilitated anaerobe can live with oxygen but doesn't absolutely need it
Extremophile archaea that can live in very extreme conditions
thermophile can live in a very hot environment
halophile can live in high saline environments
methanogens produce CH4 as waste
Proteobacteria all gram negative bacteria
chemoheterotrophic prokaryotes that serve as decomposers
Rhizobium autotroph that fixes N2
mutualism symbiotic relationship that is +,+
Bioluminescence example of mutualism
parasitism symbiotic relationship that is +,-
pathogenic many parasitic relationships are
Salmonella, chlamydia, staphyloccus example of parasitism
toxins pathogenic bacteria often produce
endotoxins part of the bacteria acts as a toxin, released only when bacteria die and cell walls break down (example: salmonella)
exotoxins secreted toxic proteins that can produce disease even when bacteria are not present (example: C. difficile)
Excavata, SAR clade, Archaeplastida, Unikonta 4 Supergroups of eukaryotes
Excavata, SAR Two of the four supergroups that include only protists
Protist all eukaryotes that aren't animals, land plants, or fungi
protist the organisms in more eukaryotic lineages are _____
unicellular most protists are
infoldings of plasma membrane the endomembrane and cytoskeleton developed from
engulf items and package them into vessicles the endomembrane and cytoskeleton allow cells to
endosymbiont cell living within another cell
endosymbionts _____ were the origin of membrane-bound organelles
plastid generic term for chloroplasts and associated organelles
Excavate, SAR clade, Archaeplastida, Unikonta the 4 super groups
mixotroph combines photosynthesis and heterotrophic nutrition
flagella, cilia, pseudopdoia Ways that protists move around
most are aquatic habitat of protists
Asexual, occasionally able to do both reproduction habitats of protists
protozoa heterotrophic unicellular eukaryote
acts animal like, feed via phagocytosis characteristics of protozoa
algae photosynthetic eukaryotes other than land plants
protists the supergroup Excavata is made up of only
excavated feeding grooves on the side of their bodies characteristic of SOME excavata
Diplomonads and Parabasalids subgroup of Excavata that lacks plastids and have reduced mitochondria
Giardia, Trichomonas vaginalis examples of parabisalids
cysts Diplomonads and Parabasalids sometimes form _____ that make them resistant to boiling, chlorine, etc.
Euglenozoan subgroup of excavata with flagella that have internal spiral or crystalline rods
Kinetoplastids and Euglenids types of Euglenozoans
Kinetoplastids have kinetoplast that house extra-nuclear DNA
Trypanosoma Example of a kinetoplastid
Euglenids have an eyespot and light detector, many are mixotrophs
Euglena example of an euglenid
SAR clade originated from secondary endosymbiosis, many have plastids, possibly a monophyletic supergroup, maybe not.
Alveolates the A in SAR
Alveolates protists whose function is unknown but that resemble alveoli
Dinoflagellates have cellulose plates, 2 flagella in grooves, often spin
Ceratium example of a dinoflagellates
Dinoflagellates important component of phytoplankton, often cause red tides
They release toxins that kill invertebrates, fish and mammals Why are red tides bad
Apicomplexans nearly all are parasites of animals
Apicomplexans have complex life cycles involving two or more hosts
Sporozoites Infectious hosts
Plasmodium example of an Apicomplexan
Ciliates Alveolates that use cilia for moving and feeding and have cilia all over in rows and tufts
Micro and Macro two types of nuclei found in ciliates
Asexually using binary fission How do ciliates reproduce?
Paramecium, Stentor Examples of a ciliates
Stramenophiles The S in SAR
most posses both "hairy" and "smooth" flagella Characteristic of Stramenophiles
Diatoms Unicellular, photosynthetic stramenophiles with glass-like silica walls
Diatomaceous Earth fossilized diatoms
Chrysophyta Golden algae
Stramenopile Golden algae (chrysophyta) is a part of which super group
photosynthesis and some are mixotrophic Golden algae gain nutrients how?
Unicellular, colonial Chrysophyta are
Dinobryon Example of chrysophyta
Phaeophyta Brown algae
always multicellular, primarily marine brown algae are
algin cell walls of brown algae are made from
erosion prevention, food and habitats for many marine animals Importance of kelp forests
Alternation of Generation Brown algae goes through
Organism alternates through a multicellular haploid phase and a multicellular diploid phase, occurs in only multicellular algae and land plants Alternation of generations
sporophyte generation that produces haploid spores by meiosis diploid (2n) generation
sporangia haploid spores are produced in
gametophyte generation that produces haploid gametes by mitosis haploid (1n) generation
gametangia haploid gametes are produced in
Rhizaria The R in the SAR clade
amoebas Rhizaria are often called
threadlike pseudopodia Rhizaria are distinguished from amoebas in the Unikonta group by having
Archeaplastida Supergroup that is monophyletic and the closest relative of land plants
Rhodophyta the most abundant large algae in tropical oceans, most are multicellular and referred to as "sea weed"
Phycoerythrin Rhodophyta contain
Alternation of generations Rhodophyte often go through
Chlorophyta and Charophyta Green algae with chloroplasts similar to land plants
Chlorophyta Has more than 7000 species, both unicellular and multicellular
colonial and filamentous Unicellular Chlorophyta can be both
Volvox ; Oedogonium example of a colonial Chlorophyta ; example of a filamentous chlorophyta
Ulva example of a multicellular Chlorophyta
alternation of generation multicellular chlorophyta go through
Unikonta Supergroup that includes animals, fungi, and protists
Amoebozoans phylum with lobe shaped pseudopodia, includes slime molds and amoebas
Physarum example of a slime mold
Producers (photosynthesis), symbiosis- Parasites, termite endosymbionts, dinoflagellates and coral Ecological importance of Protists
Coral bleaching occurs when warmer temperatures cause death of symbiotic dinoflagellates in coral
Archeaplastida super group that land plants are found in
green algae land plants evolved from
Multicellular, eukaryotic, photosynthetic, cellulose, have chloroplasts with chlorophyll a & b Traits that plants share with protists
Charophytes Land plants are most closely related to
Rings of cellulose-synthesizing proteins, flagellated sperm, formation of phragmoplast, sporopollenin Traits shared between charophytes and land plants
maternal tissue In alternation of generation, embryos depend upon
phylum In alternation of generation, the dominant generation depends on the
embryophytes another word for land plants
specially named structures gametes are held in
archegonia female structure that holds gametes
antheridia male structure that holds gametes
apical meristem portion of plant where there is a lot of growth to reach resources; region of cell division occurs here
Light and CO2 above ground, H2O in soil factors that affect the apical meristem
Sporangium walled spores are produced in the
Sporopollenin walls of the walled spores are formed by
Cuticle prevents desiccation, offers protection
Secondary compounds alkaloids, terpenes, tannins, and flavonoids that are often toxic and are used for protection
Mycorrhizae absorb nutrients from the soil, even without leaves or true roots
bryophytes another name for nonvascular plants
Vascular plants have vascular tissue, cells joined into tubes, transport H2O and nutrients throughout the plant
seed an embryo packed with nutrient supply inside a protective coat
gymnosperm have "naked seeds" because they are not in flowering plants
Nonvascular plants simplest land plants, smallest in size, grow in moist places
gametophytes ; sporophytes In nonvascular plants, ____ is the dominant generation and _____ are present part time
rhizoids roots that contain no vascular tissue, anchor nonvascular plants
Heptophyta, Bryophyta, Anthocerophyta Phylums of nonvascular plants
Hepatophyta common name: liverworts
setae Stalks that hold up the capsule, present in Hepatophyta and Bryophyta
Stomata Hepatophyta lack
Bryophyta common name: mosses, have the ability to survive in diverse habitats
Bryophyta phylum in which the gametophyte grows vertically rather than horizontally, unlike the sporophyte.
Stomata Bryophyta posses both settee and
Anthocerophyta common name: hornworts, one of the first species to colonize moist, open areas
Anthocerophyta forms a symbiotic relationship (mutualism) with nitrogen fixing bacteria
Anthocerophyta phylum in which the gametophyte grows more horizontally than vertically
Stomata Although the setae is absent in Anthocerophyta, _____ is present
Sporophytes In seedless vascular plants, _____ are the dominant generation.
Seedless vascular plants more complex and branching than nonvascular plants, possibility of having multiple sporangia, have well developed and extensive vascular tissue
Xylem conducts water and minerals up from roots.
Lignin xylem is present in cells with
Phloem distributes sugars, amino acids, and other organic products
Microphylls Small, spine-shaped leaves with a single strand of vascular tissue
Megaphylls leaves that are larger, with a highly branched vascular system
Sporophylls leaves that bear sporangia
Homosporous One type of sporangium producing one type of spore
Heterosporous Two types of sporangia producing two types of spores
Megaspore develop into the female gametophyte
Microspore develop into the male gametophyte
Lycophyta, Monilophyta, Phylum of Seedless vascular plants
Lycophyta common name: lycophytes, includes club mosses, spike mosses, and quillworts
epiphytes Plants that use other plants for support, many lycophytes are this
Lycophyta Have small gametophytes that can be photosynthetic above ground or nourished by fungi underground and sporophytes with small leaves
Monilophyta Phylum that is most closely related to seed plants, includes ferns, horsetails, and whisk ferns
Lycophytes were dominant during Devonian and Carboniferous times, contributed to global cooling. When swamps dried up, seed plants became more important Significance of Seedless Vascular Plants
reduction of gametophyte trend continued, heterospory, two types (gymnosperm and angiosperm) Derived traits of seed plants
Megasporangium produces microspores that develop into ovules
Ovule Megaspore + megasporangium + integuments, entire thing becomes the seed
Integument seed coating, protective layer
Microsporangium produces microspores that develop into pollen grains (the male gametophyte), have sporopollenin
Offers more protection than spores, temperature and moisture control, dormancy that can lead to a longer life, supply of stored food, dispersal Advantages of seeds
Gymnosperm, angiosperm two types of vascular plants with seeds
Gymnosperms "naked seed" plants, seeds are not enclosed by the ovary, but rather are located on modified leaves that usually come from cones
Cycadophyta, Gnetophyta, Coniferaphyta, Ginkgophyta Phylums that belong to Gymnosperms
Ginkgophyta common name: Ginkgo
Ginkgophyta phylum with only one species, deciduous leaves, and tolerates air pollution well, and is Dioecious
Ginkgo biloba single species in Phylum Ginkgophyta, the Maidenhair tree
Dioecious has both a male and a female variety
Male the _____ Ginkgo biloba tree is generally the one that is planted
Created by: 1177661752244318