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SHS Adv Biology 1

Biochemistry Vocabulary

TermDefinition
Organic compound covalently bonded compound that contains carbon
Monomer simple molecule that can combine with other like or unlike molecules to make a polymer
Polymer large molecule that is formed by more than five monomers, or simple units
Condensation reaction a chemical reaction in which two or more molecules combine to produce water or another simple molecule
Hydrolysis chemical reaction between water and another substance to form two or more new substances
Carbohydrate organic compound that is made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; provides nutrients to the cells of living things
Monosaccharide simple sugar that is the basic subunit or monomer of a carbohydrate
Disaccharide sugar formed from two monosaccharides
DNA material that contains the information that determines inherited characteristics
Polysaccharide carbohydrates made up of long chains of simple sugars; examples include starch,cellulose, glycogen
Protein organic compound that is made of one or more chains of amino acids
Amino Acid organic molecule that contains a carboxyl and an amino group; makes up a protein
Enzyme type of protein or RNA molecule that speeds up metabolic reactions without being permanently changed or destroyed
Lipid large, nonpolar organic molecule, including fats and steroids; store energy and make up cell membranes
Nucleic Acid organic compound, either RNA or DNA, whose molecules are made up of one or two chains
Phospholipid lipid that contains phosphorus and that is a structural component in cell membranes
ATP an organic molecule that acts as a main energy source for cell processes
Nucleotide nucleic acid chain consisting of a sugar, phosphate and a nitrogenous base
Functional Group portion of a molecule that is active in a chemical reaction and that determines the properties of many organic compounds
Macromolecule very large organic molecule
Peptide Bond chemical bond that forms between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another amino acid
Polypeptide a long chain of several amino acids
Substrate the reactant in reactions catalyzed by enzymes
Active Site site on an enzyme that attaches to substrate
Wax type of structural lipid consisting of a long fatty-acid chain that is joined to a long alcohol chain
Steroid type of lipid that consists of four carbon rings to which various functional groups are attached
RNA a natural polymer that is present in all living cells and plays a role in protein synthesis
Created by: cecilia.polumbo