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Cardiopulmonary

Pharmacological management

DrugAction
Alpha Adrenergic Antagonist Agents Reduce peripheral vascular tone by blocking alpha-1-adrenergic receptors. This causes dilation of arterioles and veins and decreases BP. Indications: HTN, benign prostatic hyperplasia
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitor Agents Decrease BP and afterload by suppressing the enzyme that converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II. Indications: HTN, CHF
Angiotensin II Receptor Antagonist Agents Blocks angiotensin II receptors which limit vasoconstriction and stimulation of vascular tissue. Indications: HTN, CHF
Sodium channel blockers Antiarrhythmic agent that control cardiac excitation and conduction. Example: Lidocaine
Beta blockers Antiarrhythmic agent inhibits sympathetic activity by blocking beta-adrenergic receptors. Example: Atenolol
Prolong repolarization Antiarrhythmic agent by inhibiting both potassium and sodium channels and are often considered the most effective anti arrhythmic agent. Example: Cordarone (amiodarone)
Calcium channel blockers Antiarrhythmic agent depress depolarization and slow conduction through the AV node. Example: Cardizem (diltiazem)
Anticoagulant agents Inhibit platelet aggregation and thrombus formation. Indication: Post PTCA and CABG surgery, prevention of venous thromboembolism and cardioembolic events in pts w/ a-fib and prosthetic heart valves.
Antihyperlipidemia agents Statins - inhibit enzyme action in cholesterol synthesis, break down LDLs, decrease triglyceride levels and increase HDL levels. Indications: hyperlipidemia, atherosclerosis, prevent coronary events
Antithrombotic (Antiplatelet) agents Inhibit platelet aggregation and clot formation. Indications: post-MI, a-fib, prevent arterial thrombus formation
Beta Blocker agents (Beta-Adrenergic Blocking agents) Decrease the myocardial oxygen demand by decreasing HR and contractility by blocking beta-adrenergic receptors. Indications: HTN, angina, arrhythmias, HF, migraines, essential tremor
Calcium channel blocker agents Blocks entry of calcium into vascular smooth mm cells resulting in diminished myocardial contraction, vasodilation, and decreased oxygen demand of the heart. Indications: HTN, angina, arrhythmias, CHF
Diuretic agents Increases the excretion of sodium and urine. Causes a reduction in plasma volume which decreases BP. Indications: HTN, edema assoc. w/ HF, pulmonary edema, glaucoma
Nitrate agents Decrease ischemia through smooth mm relaxation and dilation of peripheral vessels. Indications: angina pectoris
Positive Inotropic Agents Increase the force and velocity of myocardial contraction, slow the HR, decrease conduction velocity through the AV node, and decrease the degree of activation of the SNS. Indications: HF, A-fib
Thrombolytic Agents Facilitate clot dissolution through conversion of plasminogen to plasmin. Plasmin breaks down clots and allows occluded vessels to reopen to maintain blood flow. Indications: acute MI, PE, ischemic stroke, arterial and venous thrombosis
Created by: glopez111