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Biology Vocab

Chapter 8-9 Vocab

TermDefinition
DNA Double ladder; molecule that holds all of the information for life.
mRNA Form of RNA that carries genetic information from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, where it serves as a template for protein synthesis.
tRNA Form of RNA that brings amino acids to ribosomes during protein synthesis.
rRNA RNA that is in the ribosome and guides the translation of mRNA into a protein; also used as a molecular clock.
Griffith Finds a transforming principle.
Avery Identifies DNA as transforming principle.
Hershey&Chase Confirms that DNA is the genetic material.
Bacteriophage Virus that affects bacteria.
Nucleotide Monomer that forms DNA and has a phosphate group, a sugar, and a nitrogen base.
Ribose A sugar of the pentose class.
Deoxyribose A sugar derived from ribose.
Adenine A compound that is one of the four constituent bases of nucleic acids.
Guanine One of the four constituent bases of nucleic acids.
Cytosine A compound found in living tissue as a constituent base of nucleic acids.
Thymine A compound that is one of the four constituent bases of nucleic acids.
Uracil A compound found in living tissue as a constituent base of RNA.
Watson&Crick Developed an accurate model of DNA's 3-dimensional structure.
Double Helix Model that compares the structure of a DNA molecule , in which two strands wind around each other.
Codon Sequence of 3 nucleotides that codes for one amino acid.
Anticodon Set of three nucleotides in a tRNA molecule that binds to a complementary mRNA codon during translation.
Start Codon Codon that signals to ribosomes to begin translation; codes for the first amino acid in a protein.
Stop Codon Codon that signals to ribosomes to stop translation.
Amino Acids Molecule that makes up proteins; composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sometimes sulfur.
Methionine A sulfur containing amino acid that is a constituent of most proteins.
Purine A colorless crystalline compound with basic properties.
Pyrimidine A colorless crystalline compound with basic properties.
Rosalind Franklin Produced x-ray photographs of DNA that indicated it was helix.
Base Pairing Rules Rule that describes how nucleotides form bonds in DNA; adenine (A) bonds with thymine (T), and guanine (G) bonds with cytosine (C).
Replication Process by which DNA is copied.
Replication Fork The point at which the two strands of DNA are separated.
Transcription Process by which mRNA is decoded and a protein is produced.
Translation Process of copying a nucleotide sequence of DNA to form a complementary strand of mRNA.
DNA Polymerase Enzyme that makes bonds between nucleotides, forming an identical strand of DNA during replication.
RNA Polymerase Enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of a complementary strand of RNA from a DNA template.
Central Dogma Theory that states that, in cells, information only flows from DNA to RNA to proteins.
Operon Section of DNA that contains all of the code to begin transcription, regulate transcription, and build proteins; includes a promotor, regulatory gene, and structural gene.
Gene Specific region of DNA that codes for a particular protein.
Promoter Section of DNA to which RNA polymerase binds, starting the transcription or mRNA.
Mutation Change in the DNA sequence.
Point Mutation Mutation that involves a substitution of only one nucleotide.
Frameshift Mutation Mutation that involves the insertion or deletion of a nucleotide in the DNA sequence.
Mutagens Agent that can induce or increase the frequency of mutation in organisms.
Restriction Enzymes Enzyme that cuts DNA molecules at specific nucleotide sequencing.
Gel Electrophoresis Method of separating various lengths of DNA strands by applying an electrical current to a gel.
Polymerase Chain Reaction Method for increasing the quantity of DNA y separating it into two strands and adding primers and enzymes.
Primer Short segment of DNA that initiates replication by DNA polymerase.
DNA Fingerprint Unique sequence of DNA base pairs that can be used to identify a person at the molecular level.
Clone Genetically identical copy of a single gene or an entire organism.
Genetic Engineering Process of changing an organisms DNA to give the organism new traits.
Plasmid Circle piece of genetic material fund in bacteria that can replicate separately from the DNA of the main chromosome
Recombinant DNA Genetically engineered DNA that contains genes from more than organism or species.
Transgenic Organism organism whose genome has been altered to contain one or more genes from another organism or species.
Genomics The study of genomes.
Human Genome Project Project whose goal is to map, sequence, and identify all of the genes in the human genome.
Gene Sequencing Process of determining the order of DNA nucleotides in genes and genomes.
Gene Therapy Procedure to treat a disease in which a defective or missing gen is replaced or a new gene is inserted into a patients genome.
Genetic Screening Process of testing DNA to determine the chance a person has, or might pass on, a genetic order.
Nuclear Transfer Cloning.
Exon Sequence of DNA that codes information for protein synthesis.
Intron Segment of a gene that does not code for an amino acid.
Created by: 58knasims