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Chapter 12 - The DNA Molecule

What is the shape of DNA? double helix
What is the backbone/sides of DNA made of? alternating sugar (deoxyribose) and phosphates
What are the rungs of DNA made of? pairs of bases (A,T,C,G)
What is the base pair rule? A pairs with T; C pairs with G
What is the DNA subunit (preAP only)? a nucleotide - it's made of a single base, a sugar and a phosphate
How is RNA different from DNA? It is a single, not double helix; It has a "U" instead of a "T"; It has ribose sugar not deoxyribose; It can leave the nucleus (but DNA cannot); shorter in number of bases in the sequence
What are proteins? "worker" molecules in your body (hormomes, buiders; wreckers; building blocks) that are made of chains of different combinations of 20 amino acids
a DNA or RNA "word" that is three nitrogen bases - giving the information for one amino acid a codon
what is a genetic mutation? a change in the DNA sequence
What happens in DNA replication? The DNA molecule goes through a copying process to make two identical DNA molecules.
What happens to the orginal DNA molecule during replication? Each half/strand of it is used to make each new DNA molecule.
What molecule copies the DNA sequence and takes it to the ribosomes? messenger RNA (mRNA)
What is a gene mutation? What types are there? a change in the DNA sequence of one gene. It could result from substitution (a switch in one spot) or insertion/deletion. Usually, but not always, the protein is either dysfunctional or is not made.
Examples of genetic disorders caused by gene mutations sickle cell anemia, cystic fibrosis, hemophilia
What is a chromosome mutation? Change in structure/number of chromosomes. Nondisjunction is when centromeres fail to separate in meisosis, which if the resulting gamete is used for fertilization will usually result in severe birth defects if not miscarriage.
What is an example of a chromosome mutation down's syndrome is a genetic disorder in which a person has 3 copies of chromosome 21
What structure reads mRNA and assembles amino acids in the correct order? ribosome
RNA is a ____ helix. What does the "R" stand for? It's a single helix. R is for ribose. DNA has deoxyribose for it's sugar.
What are the bases of RNA? it has a U (uracil), A, C and G, but not T
How else is RNA different than DNA? it's shorter and can leave the nucleus.
What are proteins made of? amino acids
Gene mutations can be ________ helpful, harmful OR neutral.
What has to happen for a genetic mutation to be passed on to offspring? They have to occur in your gametes (sperm/egg cells). If a skin cell, for example, is affected, then you won't pass that on.
what is a genetic disorder? an abnormal condition that an organism inherits from their parents.
Created by: jenhaugen01