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Macromolecules Vocab

J. Sills chemistry and organic vocabulary

TermDefinition
element substance that cannot be broken down any smaller
compound/molecule combination of two or more elements
acid pH below 7
base pH above 7
organic contains carbon
inorganic does not contain carbon
carbohydrate organic macromolecule used for energy and structure
monosaccharide simple sugar; building block of carbohydrates
sugar carbohydrate; used for energy
starch stored sugar in plants; type of carbohydrate
protein organic macromolecule that controls cell reactions and activities; makes up hair, nails, muscles, etc.
amino acids building blocks of proteins
enzymes catalysts; type of protein that speeds up chemical reactions; zoom! zoom!
lipid organic macromolecule that acts as stored energy; forms cell membranes; acts as insulation and protection
fatty acid building block of lipids
nucleic acid organic macromolecule that is our genetic information and instructions; DNA and RNA
glycogen stored sugar in animals
phospholipid lipid that makes up cell membranes
nucleotides building block of nucleic acids; contain sugar, phosphate, and a nitrogen base
glucose simple sugar made by plants during photosynthesis; main energy sugar
cellulose carbohydrate that makes up the cell walls of plants
cholesterol lipid important to brain function
catalyst another term for enzyme; speeds up reactions
DNA nucleic acid that contains genetic information and instructions
RNA nucleic acid that makes proteins
homeostasis maintaining balanced, stable internal conditions for survival
monomer a building block or puzzle piece; like a piece of a jigsaw puzzle
polymer the completed product or puzzle; the completed jigsaw puzzle
protein helps control cell reactions and build tissue in living organisms; made up of amino acids
polypeptide a long chain of amino acids; another name for protein
peptide bond the bond that holds amino acids together
vitamins organic compounds needed in small amounts for proper growth and health
vitamin A for vision, immune health, bone development; found in fish and carrots
vitamin C for growth and repair of body tissues
vitamin D health of teeth and bones; added to milk; only vitamin our bodies can make using sunlight
vitamin K important for proper blood clotting. found in leafy green vegetables
minerals inorganic compounds important to cell and body functioning
ATP energy molecule made during cellular respiration
Created by: jsills