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Bio Today Ch4-6

Biology for Today Exam #2 Chapters 4-6

Proteins macromolecules; polymers made of covalently linked monomers (amino acids)
Amino Acid organic molecule with both an amino group and a carboxyl group; monomers that make up proteins
What changes from amino acid to polypeptide? the amino acid backbone
Peptide bond special type of covalent bond formed by dehydration synthesis between 2 amino acids
dipeptide a pair of amino acids linked by a peptide bond
polypeptide long chain (polymers) of amino acids linked by a peptide bond
Primary Structure of proteins linear sequence of amino acids where each amino acid is linked by a peptide bond
Secondary Structure of proteins alpha-helix beta-pleated sheet
Tertiary Structure of proteins
Quaternary Structure when several polypeptides interact with each other
Collagen fibrous protein composed of long peptide chains woven together to form fibers
Keratin fibrous, structural protein found in scales, horns, wool, nails and feathers
Silk fibrous protein
Globular proteins includes enzymes, antibodies, etc.
RNA ribonucleic acid
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid
Replication DNA synthesis
Transcription RNA synthesis
Translation protein synthesis
Nucleotides monomers of nucleic acids
Robert Hooke first to visualize the cell in 1665
Antoni van Leewenhoek first to visualize a living cell in 1674
Matthew Schleiden proposed all plants are composed of cells in 1838
Theodor Schwann proposed all animals consist of cells in 1839
Rudolf Virchow first proposed that all cells arise from preexisting cells in 1858
Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) -used to study the cells interior -theoretical resolving power 0.5nm -practical resolving power 2.0nm
Scanning Electron Microscope -used for 3D imaging of structures -resolving power of 10nm
Plasma Membrane separates each cell from its environment, creating a segregated, but not isolated compartment; consist of a phospholipid bilayer
Functions of the Membrane - selectively permeable - important in communicating with adjacent cells and receiving signals - allows maintaining of homeostasis
Prokaryotic Cells - can live off more different and diverse energy sources than any other living thing - can inhabit greater environment extremes - generally smaller than eukaryotic cells - single cell, sometimes found in groups
Eukaryotic Cells - found in plants, animals, fungi and protists - have two things not usually found in prokaryotes: cytoskeleton and membranous compartment
Nucleus stores most of the cell's DNA; usually the largest organelle in an eukaryotic cell
Functions of the Nucleus 1) site of DNA duplication to support cell reproduction 2) site of DNA control of cellular activities 3) nucleolus is the site of synthesis of RNA
Ribosome used in prokaryotic & eukaryotic cells to synthesize proteins
Endoplasmic Reticulum system of interconnected membranes branching throughout the cytoplasm ** can be found as tubes or flattened sacs
Rough ER - studded with ribosomes - may be continuous with the nuclear envelope - modifies proteins - transport vesicles
Smooth ER - lacks ribosomes attached to it - many different functions, often pertinent to cell type
The Golgi Apparatus (Golgi) - discovered initially by Camillo Golgi in 1898 - existence not confirmed until 1950's and advent of TEM **consists of flattened sacs (cisternae) and small membrane-enclosed vesicles
Two Poles of Golgi 1) Cis-face (receiving) 2) Trans-face (shipping)
What happens in the Golgi? modification of proteins
Two Organelles in Eukaryotic Cells that Process Energy Chloroplasts and Mitochondria
Mitochondrion - double membrane organelle - number per cell will vary
Mitochondrial Matrix - region enclosed by inner membrane - contains the DNA and ribosomes needed to make some of the proteins used in cellular respiration
Mitochondrial DNA - exists as a circular DNA molecule - attached to the inner membrane of the mitochondria - maternally inherited
What is energy? the ability to do work
potential energy energy which is stored or at rest
kinetic energy energy in action or at work
Types of Energy - Total energy (enthalpy) = H - Usable energy (free) = G - Unusable energy (entropy) = S - Absolute Temperature = T
1st Law of Thermodynamics Energy is neither created nor destroyed, it only changes from one form to another; energy is conserved.
2nd Law of Thermodynamics The total energy of a system always decreases and results in an increase in entropy or disorder.
closed energy system system which is not exchanging energy with its surroundings
open energy system system which exchanges matter and energy with its surroundings
spontaneous reaction when a reaction goes to more than halfway to completion without an input of free energy -- release free energy
non spontaneous reaction proceed only with an input of free energy from the environment
What are enzymes? biological catalysts; speed up reactions without being consumed in the reaction
catalyst molecule that facilitates a reaction without itself being consumed in the reaction
Coenzymes relatively small compared with the enzyme to which they temporarily bind
Characteristics of Enzymes - enzymes have an optimal temperature at which they operate most efficiently - enzymes have an optimal pH - specific in the reactions that they catalyze
Factors affecting enzymatic activity - substrate concentration vs. rate of reaction - temperature vs. rate of reaction - pH vs. rate of reaction
turnover number the number of molecules of substrate converted by an enzyme molecule per unit of time
Enzyme Inhibitors - normal binding - competitive inhibition - noncompetitive inhibition
Created by: NPEllis



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