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A-D Vocab Review

Active Transport The movement of molecules or ions against a concentration gradient (lower to higher concentration) and therefore requiring energy
Allele One of the different forms in which a gene can occur.
Autosomal Chromosome Any of the nonsex chromosomes
Carbon Fixation The process of synthesizing sugars from carbon dioxide and water (Calvin cycle of photosynthesis)
Cell Cycle The events in the life of a dividing cell consisting of G1, S, G2 and M phases.
Cell Wall A structure in plant cells that surrounds the cell membrane, important for structure and protection. Also present in algae and certain bacteria
Cellular Respiration The process in which carbon-rich sugar molecules react with oxygen to make useable energy for a cell. Occurs in heterotrophs and autotrophs
Chlorophyll One of the photosynthetic pigments found in plant chloroplasts
Chloroplast The structure in plants that contains chlorophyll and is the site of photosynthesis
Chromatin Numerous strands of DNA coiled and bunched together; the individual strands that make up chromosomes
Chromosome Any of the tubelike bodies within the nucleus containing DNA and protein. Carry the genetic code for individuals.
Codominance A situation in which both alleles express themselves in an organism that is heterozygous for a trait
Codon A three-base sequence on mRNA that tRNA uses to provide the correct amino acid
Control Group In an experiment, a group of subjects identical to the experimental subjects except that the control group is not exposed to the independent variable
Controlled Variable The factor in an experiment that remains constant while the independent variable is manipulated
Crossing Over The exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes during meiosis I
Cytokinesis The phase immediately following mitosis in which the cytoplasm divides to form two daughter cells.
cytoplasm A combination of inorganic and organic substances outside the nucleus
Dependent Variable The factor in an experiment that changes (or doesn't change) in response to the manipulated variable. It is sometimes called the responding variable.
cell theory The idea that all living things are made of cells and that all cells come only from existing cells
Created by: PRO Teacher jhaase