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World Music - North and South India

Background of India Population of the World :16%; Very diverse - Ethnic, linguistic, religion (16 recognized lang.); strong influence from previous invaders, strong colonial influence; World's largest democracy, disparity of wealth, caste system still affects ppl today
North India 2/3 of country; Hindi lang., Aryan influence, Secular (no one religion dominates), secular music, classical music is primarily instrumental
South India 1/3 of country, Dravidian lang., More indigenous, Hinduism strong, music closely tied to religion, Classical music primarily vocal
Similarities Classical music = improvisational (N- all sections; south - 1st section); Performed by virtuoso artists, concerts can be long, Ragas (scales) used (different ones with different names), Classical music = oral tradition passed from teacher to student
Song from N. I. Melody: sarod, Rhythm: tabla, Drone: tambura
Tambura Fretless plucked lute, four strings: "pillar pitch tuning" (repeating I and V), Aural "incense", played by shishya ("disciple") or vocalist
Sarod Fretless plucked lute, 3 sets of strings (melody, drone/ rhythm, and sympathetic), calf skin resonator face
Raga Performance Tuning system:22 pitches, Raga (color, "atomosphere") : Mode is the framework for improvisation and compostition/ Scale, ornamentations, melodic patterns, hierachy of pitches, etc./ Rasa ("mood"), time of day, "magic"
Raga Melodic Form Alap Section: Free rhythm, all improv, ascending melodic range, increasing rhythmic density (starts airy and open) Gat Section: Metered composition w/ improv, drum enters, second rising range and increasing density Jor-Jhala - Conclusion
Tabla Pair of hand drums, smaller drum made of wood, larger tuned to central pitch (scooping sound)
"Keep the tal" Drummer stretches the beat w/ improv (tone and rhythm)
Cultural Considerations Oral tradition (Guru- shishya), Rasa: "mood" across the arts - Rgamala is a painting, "Star artists" ex. Ravi Shankar, "flexible time": performers can begin late, concerts could be long, could not
Song from S. I. Melody:Vocal (melismatic), Imitation: Violin, Rhythm: Midangam, Drone: Sruti Box
Kruti Hindu devotional song, composed skeletal melody (vocalist adds ornamentation), complex raga and tala systems
Cultural Considerations Sri Tyagaraja (1767-1847), Devotee of Hindu god Rama, Prolific composer, Aradhana Festivals
Created by: AdrienneBronner
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