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Congress 3

pgs. 344 (1), 368 (2-6), 370-1 (7-11)

3.1 a) Explain the symbiotic relationship between PACs and candidates/officeholders. Candidates need money, which they insist can be used without compromising their integrity; PACs want access to officeholders, which they insist can be gained without buying votes.
3.1 b) Does PAC money go overwhelmingly to incumbents or challengers? Incumbents
3.1 c) What advantage does this provide the above (Does PAC money go overwhelmingly to incumbents or challengers)? The funds provide incumbents with a major head start in fundraising, as congressional challengers typically have a hard time attracting PAC donations
3.1 d) Why is "b" true? - can summarize PAC contributions are basically investments for the future, and incumbents are the most likely to return the investment.
3.2 a) What do incumbents have that most challengers lack? High levels of recognition among their constituents and benefit less from campaign spending
3.2 b) What role does money potentially play in the above (What do incumbents have that most challengers lack?)? It matters how much their opponents spend (the candidate who spends the most usually wins)
3.2 c) Who typically spends the most money? (see 2010 campaign) The challengers are outspent by the incumbents especially in the House. In 2010 (H & S) the typical incumbent outspent the typical challenger by a ration of 2 to 1.
3.3 a) What advantage does party identification give incumbents? Most members of Congress represent constituencies in which their party is the clear majority.
3.3 b) How have state legislatures helped the above (What advantage does party identification give incumbents?)? They have employed advances in technology to draw the boundaries of House districts so that there is a safe majority for one party.
3.4 When is there the greatest "likelihood of competition?" pg. 369 When an incumbent is not running for reelection, and the seat is open.
3.5 What are the term limits for members of the US Congress? box on bottom of pg. 369 people want to restrict representatives to 6 or 12 years in office.
3.6 a) Why does Congress tend to be "stable?" Because incumbents usually win reelection
3.6 b) What are the positive consequences of the above (Why does Congress tend to be "stable?")? Allows representatives and senators to gain some expertise in dealing with complex questions of public policy
3.6 c) What are the negative consequences of the above (Why does Congress tend to be "stable?")? May insulate them from the winds of political change. Making it more difficult for citizens to "send a message to Washington" with their votes.
3.7 Contrast the House and Senate in terms of centralization of power. H - more centralized; strong leadership S - less centralized; weaker leadership
3.8 a) The House is "more" what than the Senate? - provide 3 More institutionalized (centralized, hierarchical, and disciplined)
3.8 b) Why is the above (The House is "more" what than the Senate? - provide 3) true? It is more than 4x as large as the Senate, and leaders in the House do more leading than do leaders in the Senate
3.9 a) In what two ways is party discipline stronger in the House than in the Senate? Party loyalty to leadership and party-line voting are common.
3.9 b) What is true of first term members of the House as opposed to the Senate? They are more likely than first-term senators to be just seen and not heard
3.10 a) Define the Rules Committee. The committee in the House of Representatives that reviews most bills coming from a House committee before they go to the full House.
3.10 b) Which house of Congress is the Rules Committee unique to? The House of Representatives
3.11 a) When does a bill go to the Rules Committee? When it is passed from a House committee
3.11 b) What three things does it "give" a bill? When it is scheduled ("rule") on the calendar, allotting time for a debate, and sometimes specifying what kind of amendments may be offered.
Created by: Matti



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