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bio vocab

chapter 11

heterozygous contrasting alleles
karyotype a display or picture of all the chromosomes a cell's nucleus
homozygous two identical alleles
human genome project collaborative effort to map the entire human genetic sequence
gametes sex cells ( egg & sperm )
genome the entire set of an organism's gene
recessive the allele that is marked by another
hereditary the passing of traits from parents to their offspring
probability mathematical way to predict the results of simple genetic crosses
Punnett square a chart used to show genetic crossing and probability
haploid half the number of chromosomes, N
diploid a full set of chromosome, 2N
dominant allele that makes another alleles expression
Trisomy 21 also known as down syndrome; results from having an extra copy of chromosomes 21; causes mental retardation.
somatic cells cells found in the body; non-reproductive
alleles one of a number of different forms of the same gene for a specific trait
meiosis a process in which the number of chromosomes in a cell is reduced in haploid sperm or egg
genetic engineering techniques used to alter an organism's DNA includes human growth hormone, insulin, and resistant fruits and vegetables
recombinant's individuals with new combinations of genes
incomplete dominance when an intermediate phenotype occurs, no dominant trait
genotype the genetic makeup of an organism
monohybrid the crossing of one type of trait or factor
genetic disorder disease caused by an abnormal gene
dihybrid the crossing of two different factors
mutation a change or mistake in the DNA sequence
inheritance the process of passing traits from parents to offspring
phenotype the physical characteristics of an organism
gene segment of a chromosome that controls traits; contains the code for making a single protein
bio-information information technology to store, collect, and retrieve genetic information; major studies in this field includes gene sequencing, genome assembly, prediction of gene expression
cancer a disorder of cell growth that results in the invasion and destruction of surroundings healthy tissue by abnormal cells
DNA polymerase differences between the DNA sequences of individuals
polymerase chain reaction (PCR) process used to clone DNA sequence for further study or manipulation
zygote a cell that resulted from the fusion of an egg and sperm; a fertilized cell
translocation type of chromosomes mutation that occurs when a chromosome piece ends up on completely different nonhomologous chromosome
hybrid offspring of a cross between parents that have different traits; a cross between individuals of different species, subspecies of varieties.
Created by: bolt