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quiz 2

bio lab

The Cell Theory A cell is the basic unit of life •All organisms are made up of cells •All cells come from pre-existing cel
All Cells have: •Plasma membrane •DNA •Cytoplasm •Ribosomes
PROKARYOTIC CELLS DNA •Single circular chromosome •Free floating in the cytoplasm- no nucleus
Anabaena -Cyanobacteria -larger than most bacteria -Chlorophyll A, no chloroplasts
Heterocyst larger, round cell, fixes nitrogen
Akinete - resting cell, 2x as large as other cells in chain
EUKARYOTIC CELLS DNA • Paired, linear chromosomes • Enclosed in a membrane- the nucleus
Spirogyra,Volvox. Peridinium Kingdom Protista Single and multi-cellular Photosynthetic Chloroplasts Chlorophyll A and B
Amoeba, Vorticella. Paramecium. Stentor Kingdom Protista Heterotrophic Single celled Many have motility due to flagella, cilia or pseudopods.
Wet mount- used to view living organisms
making a Wet mount- Drop of medium (broth, water) containing the organism is placed on a slide • coverslip placed on top • viewed under the microscope
Smear specimen is spread on a slide, allowed to dry then fixed.
Fixing prevents material from washing off the slide during the staining process • also kills the organism • use heat or alcohol to fix the slides
Contrast how the specimen stands out from the background
Stains/dyes ionic (charged) molecules that are attracted to structures/molecules that have the opposite charge.
What do stains do Stains provide contrast so the material on a slide can be seen under the microscope
•Basic dyes have a positive charge (cationic) •Attracted to negatively charged molecules •Used to stain cells •Examples: methylene blue, crystal violet, safranin
Acid dyes - have a negative charge (anionic) •Attracted to positively charged molecules •Used to stain the background •Examples: eosin, picric acid
Simple stain- uses one dye, everything the same color. •Useful for visualizing cell type (prokaryotic or eukaryotic), cell shape and arrangements
Differential stain- uses two dyes, cell components react differently to the dyes. •Can be used to differentiate bacteria (cell wall composition), endospores and white blood cells.
• Examples of differential stains are: Wright stain, Gram stain, Acid-fast stain, endospore stain.
IMMERSION OIL Used to prevent light from refracting Has the same refractive index as glass
Taxonomy the formal system for classifying and naming living things
Binomial system of nomenclature 2 part name used to identify the organism
the scientific name Genus and species = the scientific name –Genus starts with a capital letter; species with a lower case letter. –Both are written in italics or underlined.
Kingdom Fungi Eukaryotic Non- motile Cell walls composed of chitin (polysaccharide)
Saprophyte decompose dead organic material
Parasite live off of living organism
Unicellular Fungi-Yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae- baker’s yeast Candida albicans- causes Candidiasis and thrush
molds Multicellular Fungi
hypha filamentous cells fungi cells
Mycelium - a mass of hyphae
Fruiting body- reproductive structure
Mushrooms reproductive structures
Kingdom Fungi repriduction Many Fungi are capable of both asexual and sexual reproduction. Both types of reproduction produce spores.  Fungi are classified by the type of fruiting body (reproductive structure)they form.
Rhizopus stolonifer- bread mold
sporangium produces genetically identical spores.
Zygosporangium When the hyphae of 2 different mating types meet, they form a zygosporangium. Zygosporangia produce spores that are genetically diverse.
Penicillium notatum Produces the antibiotic penicillin Discovered by Alexander Fleming
Aspergillus niger Aspergillus spores are in the environment and can cause lung infections in people with compromised immune systems.
Stachybotrys chartarum - toxic mold
Created by: Virajasaur